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Bullion  

Gordon Campbell

Metal knob or boss used for decoration on a book or harness. The term can also denote a bull’s eye in glass and (in early modern English) trunk-hose that is puffed out at the top. It is also used to describe a heavy textile fringe in curtains, pelmets and the top covers of seat furniture....

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John Christian

English painter and decorative artist. He was the leading figure in the second phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. His paintings of subjects from medieval legend and Classical mythology and his designs for stained glass, tapestry and many other media played an important part in the Aesthetic Movement and the history of international Symbolism....

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Kirsta Willis

African-American fashion designer. Burrows’s trademarks included colour blocking, asymmetry, fluid jersey separates and fluted ‘lettuce’ hems. With a youthful nonchalance and anti-establishment sensibility, Burrows clothes defined the movement and the eclecticism of New York City’s nightlife in the 1970s.

Burrows’s love affair with colour stemmed from his mother, who taught him to draw using the entire box of crayons, while from his seamstress grandmother, he learned how to sew. However, Burrows never contemplated a career in fashion until he attended the Philadelphia Museum College of Art. After graduating from Newark’s Arts High School, Burrows set out for Philadelphia, intent on becoming an art teacher. However, spurred on by a fashion exhibition he viewed, Burrows left the arts college in his second year, working briefly in the display department of Bamberger’s department store before enrolling in Manhattan’s Fashion Institute of Technology. He graduated in ...

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Nelly Perazzo

Argentine painter, tapestry designer and stage designer. From 1922 to 1933 he lived in Europe, where he studied first in Germany at the artistic colony in Worpswede and then in Paris under André Lhote and Othon Friesz. He was untouched by the violence of German Expressionism, but he assimilated various influences in France, structuring forms in the manner of Cézanne, and combining these with the audacious colouring of Fauvism and the strict sense of order in Cubism, as in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Embroidery stitch used for outlining stems and flowers; it is technically a buttonhole stitch worked backwards.

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Isabelle Denis

French town in the Gironde département, on the River Garonne. A notable tapestry workshop was briefly in existence at the château of Cadillac in the 17th century. The Director, Claude de la Pierre (1605–60), previously head of a workshop in the Faubourg S Marcel, Paris, had been engaged by the ...

Article

Calico  

Gordon Campbell

In early use, a generic name for cotton cloth from India, which was imported from Calicut (now Kozhikode), on the Malabar Coast of Kerala. The term subsequently came to denote similar European cloths. In late 19th-century England it was applied to any white unprinted cotton cloth, though in the USA and Scotland such cloths were called ‘cotton’. In modern American English it now denotes a coarse printed cotton cloth....

Article

Jan Glier Reeder

French couture house. Established at 24, Rue Thaitbout by three sisters, Marie Callot Gerber, Marthe Callot Bertrand and Regine Callot Tennyson-Chantrelle. The sisters shared an artistic heritage; their mother was a lacemaker and their father an artist and professor who was descended from the master draftsman and etcher ...

Article

Cambric  

Gordon Campbell

Type of fine white linen, originally made at Cambrai in French Flanders and widely used for handkerchiefs; the term is also applied to an imitation made of hard-spun cotton yarn.

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Camlet  

Gordon Campbell

Mixed cloth combining wool, silk and, sometimes, Angora goat- or camel-hair. The camlet of Cyprus was for centuries deemed to be of the highest quality. From the 17th century European manufacturers produced imitations; in the 18th century it became the favoured cloth for bed hangings, although the grandest beds continued to be hung with silk....

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Brigitte Volk-Knüttel

Netherlandish painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman, active in Italy and Germany. He was one of several Italian-trained Mannerist artists employed by the courts of Europe and was the leading figure in Munich from 1600 to 1628. His versatility led Sandrart to describe him as a ‘universal painter’. When he was about ten years old he emigrated to Florence with his parents—his father, ...

Article

Canvas  

Jonathan Stephenson

Type of strong, substantial cloth originally made of hemp (Cannabis sativa, from which it takes its name) but more likely to be of a coarse flax or tightly woven linen; similar textiles of cotton or jute are also called canvas. A cloth type rather than a specific cloth, with varied practical applications, canvas is important as a material used for making ...

Article

Cassandra Gero

French couturier, ready-to-wear designer and entrepreneur. Cardin is known for space-age style fashions in the 1960s, pioneering the ready-to-wear market and extensive licensing of his name (see fig.).

Cardin was born in Italy, but his family moved to France when he was two years old. He worked as a menswear tailor in Vichy, then as an accountant for the Red Cross during World War II. He later moved to Paris, where he was employed as an assistant at the couture houses of ...

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Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

See Kolbe family

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

In 

See Kolbe family

Article

Carpet  

Margaret Roberts and Jennifer Wearden

Originally a thick cover for a bed, table etc. From the 16th century the term included knotted carpets from the Middle East; it gradually became exclusively associated with knotted carpets placed on the floor. By the early 18th century other forms of fabric floor covering had assumed the same name. (...

Article

Kristen Shirts

American fashion designer. Active from the late 1930s through to the mid-1980s, Cashin designed clothing for women with busy, modern lifestyles. She took design inspiration from a wide variety of sources, including nature, travel and sports. Her signature style included layered clothing, inventive pockets and the liberal use of leathers (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Term that originally referred to a shawl made from the fine soft wool of the Kashmir goat, and later applied to the fabric from which the shawls were made and the woollen European imitations of that fabric. See also Textile, §I, 1, (i), (c), , §I, 1(i)(c)....

Article

Naomi Beckwith

American sculptor and multimedia artist working in fibre, installation, video, and performance. The youngest of seven sons born into a central Missouri family, Cave demonstrated an early acumen with hand-made objects and throughout his career has created works out of texturally rich materials imbued with cultural meaning. Cave received his BFA (...

Article

Style rooted in 19th-century antiquarian studies of ancient Celtic art in Britain and Ireland. It was a mainly decorative style and first appeared in the 1840s, remaining fashionable from the 1890s to c. 1914 and lingering on through the 1920s. Derived from the complex, intertwining, linear motifs of ancient Celtic ornament, it was employed in metalwork, jewellery, embroidery, wall decoration, wood inlay, stone-carving and textiles. The Celtic Revival was closely related to the English Arts and Crafts Movement’s aim of social and artistic reform and was part of the general upsurge of Romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Its chief characteristics were raised bosses, tightly enmeshed roundels and bands of sinuous, criss-crossing lines, similar to but more abstract than Art Nouveau designs. Sources of inspiration were such Celtic antiquities as the Tara Brooch and the Ardagh Chalice (both 8th century ...