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Lindy Grant

Cathedral dedicated to Notre-Dame in Manche, Normandy, France. The see of Coutances is first mentioned in 511, but in 836 Viking invasions forced the bishop to abandon his cathedral, and the see was not re-established until 1024. A new cathedral was begun by Bishop Geoffrey de Mountbray after his election in ...

Article

Ryszard Brykowski

Church dedicated to St Michael at Dȩbno in the province of Nowy Sa̧cz, southern Poland. The 15th-century wooden church at Dȩbno has interested art historians since the middle of the 19th century; the stencilled paintings that decorate the interior were then regarded as an expression of ‘Slavonic taste’; soon afterwards the monument was defined as ‘a work in the pointed arch style’. In the 1920s it was included in the ‘Tatra Highlands group of wooden churches’ and regarded as the most characteristic and earliest example of a medieval wooden church in Poland....

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Gordana Babić

Monastic church dedicated to Christ Pantokrator in the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia, situated 15 km south of Peć. It was founded by King Stephen Uroš III Dečanski (reg 1321–31) and his son, Stephen Uroš IV Dušan (reg as king 1331–46; emperor 1346–55). A sturdy wall surrounds the complex, which is entered by a fortified gate. Few of the conventual buildings remain. Archbishop ...

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Marc Deceneux

Castle in Brittany, France. It was built from 1382 by John IV of Montfort, Duke of Brittany (reg 1341–99), after his return from exile in England (1379). The site was particularly important to him: it was from Dinan, a strongly fortified city and commercial centre, that John organized resistance by the nobility to the threatened annexation of the Duchy by France. The castle, adjoining the city but independent of it, could both provide defence and compel submission in case of revolt: it was a substantial political symbol....

Article

Mark Dike DeLancey

Malian mosque that was built in 1906–7 in the Sudanese style under the direction of master mason Ismaïla Traoré. Local historical traditions state that a mosque was first built on this site in the 12th century, replacing the palace of Djenné’s ruler Koi Konboro after he converted to Islam. By the turn of the 20th century the mosque was in ruins....

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Dovecot  

Victoria Merrill

Building to house flocks of pigeons, which were popular until the 18th century because they provided fresh meat throughout the winter and required little attention. In large numbers, however, they were a menace, because they fed off any standing crop, and in England, Scotland and France ownership of dovecots was restricted by law to landowners, monasteries and parochial clergy. Nevertheless, there were 26,000 dovecots in England in the 17th century. With the introduction of root crops towards the end of the 17th century, however, animals could be fed throughout the winter, and the building of dovecots for anything other than ornamental purposes declined, particularly in England. In Scotland, however, they played a significant part in the local economy until the 19th century....

Article

R. Allen Brown

Castle in Kent, England, overlooking the seaport at the narrowest part of the English Channel. It has been described as ‘the key of England’ (Matthew Paris: Chronica majora, Rolls Series, iii, 28; 13th century). Occupation of the site has been traced to the Iron Age. In Roman times Dover was a military settlement and later a Saxon Shore fort. The Pharos (lighthouse; probably 1st century ...

Article

Tania Velmans

Monastic church in Bulgaria, 10 km south of Sofia on the northern slopes of the Vitocha Mountains. The monastery, consecrated to the Virgin, was founded by King John Alexander (reg 1331–71) towards the middle of the 14th century, but has since been destroyed; a small church (...

Article

Francis Woodman

Former royal palace in south-east England. Eltham, once rural, is now surrounded by the south-east London suburbs. The old de Vesci manor was rebuilt between 1295 and 1311 by Bishop Bek of Durham, who bequeathed it to Prince Edward, later Edward II (reg 1307–27), from whom it passed to Queen ...

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Phillip Lindley and Faith Johnson

Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England. It began as the minster church for the city of Ely, having been founded in ad 673 on an island in the Fens by Queen Etheldreda (reg 630–79). After being sacked by the Danes in 870, the minster was reconsecrated and re-endowed by Bishop ...