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Article

Kristen Shirts

American fashion designer. Blass is known for his ready-to-wear apparel and sportswear. He cultivated a high-society personal image to complement his upper-class clientele and is often credited with promoting a distinctly American look that incorporated simplicity, practicality and casual luxury. He is also known for his shrewd business practices, including product licensing and making personal appearances at ‘trunk shows’ across the country....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of lace produced in northern France. Blonde lace is a floss silk lace of two threads, twisted and formed in hexagonal meshes; early examples are the colour of raw silk, but later ones are sometimes black or white. Blonde laces were first made c...

Article

Paul Huvenne

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram lab testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In ...

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Gordon Campbell

French painter and designer of textiles and embroideries. He trained with Philippe de Lasalle and went on to become one of the most celebrated designers of textiles and embroidery for Lyon silk manufacturers. His clients included the Empress Josephine, for whom he designed the furniture fabrics at Malmaison (near Paris), and the Empress Marie-Louise, for whom he designed a coronation robe. His work in every medium is chiefly remarkable for its flowers. It is sometimes difficult to attribute work with confidence to Bony or de Lasalle; the silk wallpaper for Marie-Antoinette’s bedroom in Versailles (of which some is now in the Musée Historiques des Tissus in Lyon), for example, could be by either artist....

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in ...

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Alastair Laing

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

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Gordon Campbell

English tapestry-weaver, upholsterer and cabinetmaker. In 1755 he assumed control of the Soho tapestry works owned by his relative William Bradshaw. In 1757 he worked with the tapestry-weaver Paul Saunders (1722–71) to make tapestry and furniture for Holkham Hall, the Norfolk seat of the earls of Leicester; their work (designed to match a set of Brussels tapestry panels) can still be seen in the Green State Bedroom. Bradshaw subsequently supplied furniture to Admiralty House in London (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English furniture-maker and tapestry-weaver. He founded a London workshop in 1728, and in 1755 passed control of the workshop to George Smith Bradshaw. He was unusual in his ability to undertake both the joinery and the tapestry upholstery for furniture (e.g. four armchairs. New York, Met.)....

Article

Braid  

Gordon Campbell

Woven fabric in the form of a band, typically made of silk, wool, cotton, gold or silver thread; it is used primarily for trimming or binding articles of dress. In the vocabulary of lace, a braid is a narrow flat band woven of linen thread, with an open-work border on each side, used to form the outline of the pattern in point-lace work. In embroidery, braids were often couched to the foundation, sometimes in place of the embroidery stitch....

Article

Patricia Strathern

French photographer. He worked in Paris as a textile designer, discovering his interest in photography in 1853, when he photographed a collection of 300 studies of flowers intended to serve as models for painters and fabric designers (see fig.). He set up a studio in Paris in ...

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Gordon Campbell

Piece of lace, sometimes of gold or silk, used to bind the sprigs of rosemary carried or worn at weddings in the 19th century.

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Brin  

Gordon Campbell

Single filament of raw silk fibre as spun by the silk-worm; two brins bonded together by sericin form the bave.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Plain, dressed, double-width, black woollen cloth, used chiefly for hangings and men’s clothing; in early modern usage the term implied width, but subsequently it has been used loosely to denote a densely woven woollen cloth.

Article

English jewelleryand textile designer. She trained at Leicester School of Art (1968–9) and at the Central School of Art and Design, London (1969–72). In her early pieces she employed flexible nylon monofilament structures that could be collapsed to form a neckpiece, pulled up to form a ruff effect or even expanded to cover the face and head (e.g. neckpiece/veil, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Lampas-woven imitation of brocade, usually made of silk or wool, used for tapestry, upholstery and women’s clothing.

Article

Broché  

Gordon Campbell

In needlework, broché work is a type of embroidery which follows patterns woven into the ground, as in damasks and fabrics for furnishing. In bookbinding a broché book is one that is stitched but not bound.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of whitework embroidery characterized by patterns of small holes edged with buttonhole stitches, used from the 18th century for making dresses.

J. Kliot and K. Kliot: Cutwork, Hebedo & Broderie Anglaise (Berkeley, CA, 1992)

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Bruges  

Jacques Thiébaut, Jean C. Wilson, Erik Duverger and Leo de Ren

Belgian city in western Flanders on the River Reie, c. 12 km inland from Zeebrugge. It flourished particularly from the 13th century to the 15th, when it was an international port and centre of the cloth trade. Under the patronage of the Dukes of Burgundy, from ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English county noted for its lace production. The Buckinghamshire towns of Aylesbury, Great Marlow, Hanslope, Newport Pagnell, Olney and Stony Stratford were important centres of a domestic lace industry. Bobbin lace had been made in the county since the 16th century. By the 19th century it had established a county style (similar to the laces of Lille) consisting of a ground mesh of two threads twisted into either a hexagon or a six-pointed star, with simple floral patterns in thicker thread....

Article

Buczacz  

Zdisław Żygulski jr

Town in Podolia, Ukraine, formerly in Polish territory, known as a centre for weaving in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 18th century the town belonged to the magnate family Potocki, and the art of weaving kilims with floral designs flourished. About 1870 Oskar Potocki founded a large factory to produce wall hangings made of silk interwoven with gold and silver thread. These hangings carried on the Polish tradition of brocade weaving but were made on mechanical looms. They are distinguished by subtle shades of pink, orange and red, with tiny motifs, or are predominantly gold with a beautiful sheen. They were expensive and much prized by connoisseurs. The workshop labels, which give the size of each piece (usually about 1.5×2.5 m), show the Pilawa coat of arms of the Potocki family (a cross with two-and-a-half arms), the name ...