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Article

Gordon Campbell

Hindi term for ‘tie and dye’, a mode of dyeing in which knots are tied in the fabric to prevent knotted parts from absorbing the dye. The term was imported into Europe (with the spelling bandana or bandanna) to denote a richly coloured silk handkerchief, with spots left white or yellow by the process described above; the term is now applied to cotton handkerchiefs and headscarves....

Article

Gordon Campbell

In 1625 Cardinal Francesco Barberini (see Barberini family, §2) visited France, where King Louis XIII gave him seven tapestries, designed by Peter Paul Rubens, of scenes from the Life of Constantine (1623–5; Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.). After his return to Italy he founded a tapestry factory, the Arazzeria Barberini, at the Palazzo Barberini in Rome (...

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Gordon Campbell

Type of embroidery worked in flame stitch patterns in a single graduated colour, several examples of which (worked on silk) could formerly be seen at the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence; it is also known as Hungarian point or Hungarian stitch. In England crewel was customarily used instead of silk....

Article

T. L. Ingram and Francis Russell

English family of merchants, bankers, politicians, collectors and patrons. John Baring (1697–1748) came from a Lutheran family in Bremen and settled in Exeter, Devon, in 1717. The success of his clothmaking business enabled him to acquire a large house, Larkbeare, and landed estate on the outskirts of the city. His portrait was painted by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Unwoven cloth made from the bast (inner bark) of a tree. It is also known as ‘tapa’, with reference to the Polynesian bark cloth made from the bark of the paper mulberry and used for clothing. There is a huge collection of Polynesian bark cloth in the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum in Honolulu. In sub-Saharan Africa bark cloth was traditionally decorated with free-hand painting applied with grass brushes, and was used for room-dividers and screens as well as clothing. Its widest application was in Japan, where bark cloth was used for windows, screens, kites, flags and umbrellas....

Article

James Bugslag

He was one of the most successful of several French luxury textile merchants based mainly in Paris and Arras during the late 14th century and the only one whose work is known to have survived. He was a citizen of Paris and is referred to variously as a weaver of high-warp tapestries, a merchant of ...

Article

Batik  

Susi Dunsmore

Resist dyeing technique. Patterns are created on cloth (usually undyed cotton or silk) by painting, printing or stencilling designs in wax, rice or cassava paste, mud or some other dye-resistant substance on to those areas intended to retain their original colour after dyeing. Further patterns and colours can be introduced by altering or adding to the resist areas before redyeing. Finally, the resist media are removed by rubbing or washing. Delicate lines within the patterns, where the resist substance has cracked and allowed the dye to seep in, are characteristic of the technique....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Rich embroidered stuff, originally made with warp of gold thread and woof of silk; in later usage the term broadened to include any rich brocade or rich shot silk. The term derives from Baldacco, the Italian word for Baghdad. The forms ‘baldachin’ and ‘baldaquin’ are sometimes used to render Italian ...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in ...

Article

David M. Wilson

Embroidered strip of linen telling and interpreting the story of the events starting in 1064 that led up to the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. It is made up of eight conjoined sections of different lengths. The scenes at the end of the tapestry are damaged and some are lost, but its surviving length is 68.38 m and its depth varies between 457 and 536 mm. The linen is relatively fine (18 or 19 warp and weft threads per 10 mm) and the embroidery is in wool, in laid-and-couched work, defined by stem or outline stitch. The latter is also used for all the linear detail and the lettering. No trace of any construction lines or of tracing from a cartoon remains on the tapestry. The colours are terracotta, blue–green, a golden yellow, olive green, blue, a dark blue or black (used for the first third of the tapestry), and a sage green. Later repairs were carried out mainly in light yellow, greens, and oranges. The earliest possible mention of the tapestry is in ...

Article

Valerie Holman

He attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, from 1911, until he joined the army in 1915. After World War I he devoted himself primarily to painting. In 1922 he met Juan Gris with whose encouragement his early Matisse-influenced rhythmical compositions acquired greater stability. In the late 1920s he was promoted by Tériade as a successor to the Cubists, with such works as ...

Article

Melissa Marra

American fashion designer. A modernist, Beene’s inventive geometric cuts and in-depth understanding of the human body made him one of the most innovative designers of the 20th century.

In deference to a family tradition, Beene enrolled as a pre-med student at Tulane University in 1943...

Article

See Ferenczy family

Article

Jérôme de la Gorce

French designer, ornamentalist and engraver. The Berain family moved to Paris c. 1644. Berain’s father, also called Jean Berain, and his uncle Claude Berain were master gunsmiths. In 1659 Berain published a series of designs for the decoration of arms, Diverses pièces très utiles pour les arquebuzières...

Article

Peter Mitchell

According to his uncorroborated 19th-century biographer J. Gaubin, he was intended for holy orders and began studying flower painting as a novice (Rev. Lyon., i, 1856). Certainly he studied drawing under the sculptor Antoine-Michel Perrache (1726–79) and worked for Lyon’s silk industry as a textile designer, visiting Paris annually, ostensibly to keep abreast of the latest fashions. He first exhibited at the Paris Salon of ...

Article

Mark Jones

French painter, sculptor, medallist and designer. He studied in Paris, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and was much influenced by his friendship with Maurice Denis. He worked principally as a painter, adopting the saturated colours of Henri Matisse in landscapes and figure studies often based on observation of ‘exotic’ cultures, notably Mediterranean and North African. In the mid-1960s a new rawness emerged in his work, derived from ‘primitive’ examples and new materials associated with his experiments in other media. He executed tapestry designs for ...

Article

Biba  

M. B. Whitaker

British fashion boutique. Established in 1963 by fashion illustrator Barbara Hulanicki (b 1936) as a mail-order catalogue, Biba swiftly evolved into a popular London boutique, and finally, from 1973 to 1975, a short-lived department store. Biba offered eclectic and affordable clothing, accessories, cosmetics and other products to students and teenagers, consequently becoming a fundamental driving force behind street fashion during the 1960s and 1970s (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of lace made since the 17th century at Binche, near Brussels and Valenciennes, both of whose laces it resembles. It is a heavy lace with decorative grounds, and was used for bedspreads and as a costume trimming. The name has since become the generic term for the type of lace once made at Binche....

Article

Style of silk woven in Europe, especially Italy, France and England, in the late 17th century and early 18th. The bizarre style had its origins in the rich mix of images provided by the goods imported into Europe from the Near and Far East by the Levant Company and the East India companies of France, Holland and England. An insatiable market for novelty and richness had been established at the courts of Louis XIV and Charles II, and other monarchs who followed their lead. The silks woven to satisfy that demand began to appear in the late 1680s; chinoiseries and vegetable forms derived from Indian textiles began to be mixed with European floral sprigs. By the mid-1690s, the plant forms, although still small, were becoming more angular and elongated, with an increasingly vigorous left-right movement. The patterns, typically asymmetrical, were brocaded with metal threads on damask grounds, which were already patterned with even stranger motifs....