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Article

Dafni  

Ioanna Bitha

Middle Byzantine monastery in Greece, 10 km west of Athens on the former Sacred Way to Eleusis. It is dedicated to the Theotokos and famous for the late 11th-century mosaics in its church. According to Pausanias (Guide to Greece I.xxxvii.6) a Temple of Apollo once stood at the site. The earliest remains date to the 5th or 6th century ...

Article

Italian archaeologist. Educated at the Collegio Romano and the university of Rome, he was the founder of the scientific archaeology of early Christianity. Using his extensive knowledge of ancient topography, literary sources, and the researches of the humanists (especially those of Antonio Bosio), he illuminated contemporary understanding of Early Christian life and art in Rome. His earliest excavations were carried out between ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Austrian historian of Byzantine, Islamic and Indian art. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Vienna and Graz and in 1902 completed his doctorate at Graz under Josef Strzygowski and Wilhelm Gurlitt, a study of the paintings in a manuscript of Dioskurides’ ...

Article

Rahmi Hüseyin Ünal

Small town in central Anatolia (Turkey), c. 100 km south-east of Sivas. Founded in the mid-9th century ad and known as Tephrikè to the Byzantines, the town was taken by the Saljuqs of Rum after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. In the 12th century it came into the possession of the Mangujak (Mengüček) Turkomans, under whom several remarkable buildings and fortifications were erected. The Kale (‘citadel’) Mosque, constructed for the Mangujak sovereign ...

Article

Karel C. Innemée

Term used to indicate a number of related items, first among them the iconographical theme of the Lamentation (Gr. epitaphios threnos), the earliest example of which is on an 11th-century Byzantine ivory panel (Konstanz, Rosgtnmus.). In Lamentation scenes Christ is usually depicted lying flat on a stone, clothed only in a loincloth, surrounded by the mourning figures of Joseph of Arimathaea, Nicodemus, the Virgin and St Mary Magdalene. This iconography gradually developed out of depictions of the Entombment, but whereas in the latter scene Joseph is shown holding Christ, in the Lamentation it is the Virgin who embraces him....

Article

Erzurum  

Lale Babaoğlu

City in eastern Turkey. Located on the main route between Iran and Turkey, it has been an important military and commercial centre since antiquity. Possession of the city passed between the Byzantines, who knew it as Theodosiopolis, and the Arabs, who called it Arz(an) al-rum (‘Arz(an) of the Byzantines’) after a nearby commercial centre. In ...

Article

Roger Stalley

Site of an early Christian monastery in Co. Wicklow, Ireland. Set in a steep valley on the eastern edge of the Wicklow Mountains, the monastery owed its origin to St Kevin (d ad 618), who chose this wild, lonely spot as the site of a hermitage. A century later it had become a flourishing monastery, teeming with pilgrims and students; it retained its vitality until the end of the 12th century despite the sequence of fires, plunderings, and other disasters mentioned in the annals. The chief relics of the ancient monastery are an impressive round tower and the ruins of at least nine ...

Article

Slobodan Ćurčić

Byzantine monastery in the Kosovo region between Montenegro and Macedonia, 8 km south of Priština. It was founded by the Serbian king Stephen Uroš II Milutin (reg 1282–1321). The church of the Dormition (originally Annunciation; 1311–21) is all that survives and is one of the outstanding achievements of Late ...

Article

British museum curator and art historian. After taking a degree at Oxford, he spent a season in Istanbul with David Talbot-Rice at the British Academy excavations of the Great Palace of the Byzantine emperors. In 1928 he joined the staff of the Department of Printed Books at the British Museum; in ...

Article

Carolyn L. Connor

Byzantine monastery 8 km east of Dhistomo in the foothills of Mt Helikon (nr anc. Stiris), Phokis, central Greece. Founded in the mid-10th century by the monk Loukas the younger (d ad 953), a healer and miracle-worker, the monastery has two unusually well-preserved churches, the Panagia or Theotokos (church of the Virgin) and the adjoining katholikon or main monastery church. The latter is famous for its lavish mosaics and wall paintings, which remain intact. Other monastic buildings of various periods survive....