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Maria Angela Mattevi

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (...

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J. M. Maddison

Royal fortress and palace in Gwynedd, Wales. It was begun in 1283 on the site of a Norman predecessor, built c. 1090 by Hugh, Earl of Chester, and is the most splendid and important of the royal castles built in connection with Edward I’s Welsh wars. The castle made an impact on the development of both secular and religious architecture in early 14th-century England and successfully emulated one of the great works of antiquity....

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Term used in the 18th century for a public room for music or dancing; it later came to refer to a building for gambling.

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Mariapia Branchi

Castle on a hilltop dominating the Merano valley, near Bolzano, in the Alto Adige, northern Italy, which was the seat of the counts of Tyrol. Its strategic position controlling the transalpine road network persuaded the medieval German emperors to devolve the county’s power on the prince-bishops of Trent, Brixen, Coira, and Salzburg, all close to the imperial lineage. This situation hindered the local nobility in establishing power. The castle was built in four phases (before ...

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Castle  

R. Allen Brown and Michael Thompson

Fortified residence. In Europe in the Middle Ages the castle was the fortified residence of a nobleman, effectively displaying his authority and feudal lordship over the territory associated with it as well as serving a military function. In the post-medieval period the castle type persisted as a residence—usually unfortified, but aristocratic—that made use of the forms but not the substance of medieval fortification to display the power and authority of the owner or merely his antiquarian interests; in this context the term ‘castellated style’ is also used, particularly for 19th-century buildings....

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K. Somervell

English ceramics factory. The factory was founded in 1837 by Edward Bingham (d 1872) in Castle Hedingham, Essex, where there were good-quality deposits of clay. The earliest output was earthenware for local use. During the 1850s Bingham’s son Edward Bingham (1829–c....

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Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in ...

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Gordon Campbell

Early 19th-century French bookbinding decorated with motifs from Gothic architecture.

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Javier Rivera

Spanish monastery in the town of Celanova in the province of Orense, Galicia. It was founded in 936 by the bishop and monk St Rosendo (d 977), who was also abbot of the monastery from 959 until his death. The monastery belonged to the Benedictine Order and was dedicated to St Salvador. The oldest and most important part of the monastery, the ...

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Jakub Vítovský

Castle in the Czech Republic, overlooking the River Sázava, c. 60 km south-east of Prague. It is one of two castles founded by Zdeslav, a leading member of the court of Ottokar II Přemysl (reg 1253–78). Český (Bohemian) Šternberk was founded c. 1240 and became the family seat of Zdeslav’s descendants, the lords of Šternberk. Český Šternberk was completed by ...