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Dutch painter, draughtsman, etcher and tapestry designer, active in Flanders and Spain. His early paintings show links with the work of Jan van Scorel, Jan Gossart and Bernard van Orley; it is thus assumed that he trained in the northern Netherlands, probably together with van Scorel in the workshop of ...

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Meghan E. Grossman

Italian fashion designer , active in Milan and Paris. Versace was a prolific and energetic designer of the 1980s and 1990s, known for manifestations of overt sexuality in both men’s and women’s clothes ( see fig. ). Born in Reggio Calabria, a small town in southern Italy, Versace spent his childhood in his mother’s dressmaking shop. In ...

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Nigel J. Morgan and Pauline Johnstone

Garments and items used by the clergy.

Nigel J. Morgan

The form of ecclesiastical vestments in the Early Christian period and during the Middle Ages is known largely from works of art rather than extant objects. Textiles are susceptible to decay with time, and although a number of vestments survive from the 14th and 15th centuries, few survive from the earlier centuries, when vestment forms were developing. Visual information is provided by mosaics, wall, panel and manuscript paintings, ivories, illuminated manuscripts and above all from tomb sculpture and sepulchral brasses....

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Aileen Ribeiro

In 

See Dress

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Aileen Ribeiro

In 

See Dress

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Diana de Marly

In 

See Dress

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Mai Vu

Dutch fashion house. Founded in Amsterdam in 1993, Viktor & Rolf is the fashion house created by Viktor Horsting (b 27 May 1969) and Rolf Snoeren (b 19 Dec 1969). The two met while studying fashion design at the Hogeschool voor de kunsten Arnhem (HkA). Upon graduation in ...

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B. C. Sliggers and E. Caljé-van den Berg

In 

See Vinne, van der family

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Anna Maria Ferrari

Italian painter. He is first mentioned in a document drafted in Rome in 1517. According to Vasari, he was a pupil of Raphael and was among the artists who worked with him on the frescoes in the Vatican Logge. In 1520 he travelled to Flanders, carrying a letter of recommendation from Pope ...

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B. C. Sliggers and E. Caljé-van den Berg

Dutch family of artists. They were Mennonites from Haarlem, and about ten members of the family practised as artists during the 17th and 18th centuries. Some members of the family were also employed in the manufacture and sale of textiles. (1) Vincent Laurensz. van der Vinne is best known for his travel diaries and sketches. It is possible that some of the drawings attributed to him are by his son ...

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Lourdes Font

French fashion designer. Vionnet was one of the most innovative and influential dressmakers of the 20th century. She brought a brilliant analytical mind, superb technical ability, and the rigorous taste of a modernist to the craft of dressmaking. Vionnet’s designs revealed the body and followed its movements; she worked by draping and cutting fabric in the round on a mannequin. Although Vionnet is known for the bias-cut, her method was based upon a thorough understanding of the structure of textiles, which she described as the three ways of fabric: the straight grain, cross grain and bias....

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Warp  

Gordon Campbell

The threads which are extended lengthwise in the loom, usually twisted harder than the Weft .

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Pat Gilmour

American painter, printmaker, tapestry designer, writer and lecturer. She left school at 15 to become a painter, using her given names, June Claire, but her reputation was made after her marriage, when she became June Wayne. Her first exhibition, in 1935, of watercolours based on Ben Day dots, took place a quarter of a century before the birth of Pop art and won her an official invitation to Mexico. Pursuing a rich diversity of ideas, fashionable and unfashionable, she often anticipated aesthetic developments. For example, her spatial constructions of ...

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Weft  

Gordon Campbell

The threads that cross from side to side in a woven fabric, at right angles to the Warp threads with which they are interlaced; the pattern is formed from the weft threads.

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English fashion designer. The early phase of her career was closely affiliated with contemporary music, including costume design for the rock band the New York Dolls. Over the course of more than 30 years in fashion, Westwood became known for her use of historical sources and her enthusiasm for British dress and textile traditions (...

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John Mawer

American designer . She came from a prosperous and artistic background. She saw the Royal School of Needlework’s exhibition at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia, which inspired her to found, in 1877, the Society of Decorative Arts of New York City, the aim of which was to restore the status of crafts traditionally associated with women and provide them with the opportunity to produce high-quality, handmade work which could be profit-making. The Society, which generated sister branches in major American cities, taught many design and craft techniques, but art needlework remained the focus. In ...

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Gordon Campbell

Embroidery worked in white thread on a white ground. Whitework was used from the Middle Ages until the mid-19th century both for ecclesiastical embroidery and for the decoration of large collars, handkerchiefs and other personal accessories. Broderie anglaise is a form of whitework used in dressmaking....

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M. Hamilton-Phillips and R. P. Maccubbin

Term applied primarily to decorative arts produced in The Netherlands and England during the reign (1689–1702) of William III and Mary II ( see Orange Nassau, House of family, §5 ) and that spread also to North America at the end of the century. It covers a vocabulary of visual forms rather than a movement, and is represented by richly ornamented furniture, displays of wares from the Far East, embossed and engraved silver, ceramics, luxurious textiles, architectural ornament and garden design. The decorative arts of the 1690s reflect the blending of French, Dutch and English ornamental styles as well as an increased taste for exotica. Although at war with France, ...

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Geraldine Craig

American sculptor, animation, performance, and installation artist. Wilson was a leading figure among artists who began working in the progressive contemporary craft movement of the 1970s and1980s and gained prominence in the art mainstream by the 1990s. Influenced by the alignment of textiles with feminist art that emerged in the 1970s, Wilson employed the cultural associations of diverse source materials (table linens, bed sheets, human hair, lace, thread, wire, glass) to interrogate how craft and context can define a feminist position in art by subverting the boundaries of middle-class propriety and social values....

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Worsted  

Gordon Campbell

Fabric made from well-twisted yarn spun of wool combed to lay the fibres parallel. See also under Textile, §I, 1, (i), (c), , §I, 1(i)(c).