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Australian painter, printmaker, book designer, lecturer, collector, gallery director and publisher of limited edition artists’ books, of Irish decent. He worked as a draughtsman before entering war service in the British Admiralty from 1940 to 1949, including five years in Colombo, where he made sketching trips to jungle temples with the Buddhist monk and artist Manjsiro Thero. Between ...

Article

While the main public art museums in Australia are to be found in its capital cities (see Australia, §XII), throughout Australia there are over 160 regional art galleries, which are owned and funded by local and state governments. As well as displaying their own permanent collections, these art galleries have extensive exhibition programmes that include major national and international travelling exhibitions, together with community-based art shows. As Australia’s landmass is greater than Europe but with a relatively small population (22.68 million), this is an excellent way of taking art to people in country towns, isolated communities, and the hinterland of major cities. Regional galleries have outstanding art collections, acquired through philanthropic endowment and the Federal Government’s taxation concessions for cultural gifts. These collections constitute a significant percentage of the country’s Distributed National Art Collection and include key paintings in the history of Australian art....

Article

Australian collector and dealer. He settled in Australia with his Polish Jewish family in 1933. He won a scholarship to the Brunswick Technical Art School, Melbourne, but his studies were curtailed by the depression of the 1930s, and he was obliged to seek work. After a successful business career in the fashion industry, Brown opened an art gallery in Melbourne in ...

Article

David Cohen

English collector and writer. Born into a wealthy family that had made its fortune in Australia, he studied at the universities of Oxford and Freiburg and at the Sorbonne in Paris. When, in 1932, he resolved to spend one third of his inheritance (approximately £100,000) on art, he decided to amass the best examples of paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints by ...

Article

Robert Smith

Australian philanthropist and businessman of English birth. In Britain he was apparently apprenticed to an apothecary before migrating to Victoria in 1853, where he profited from transporting supplies to the gold-fields in a horse-drawn dray. This enabled him to go into business in Melbourne, where by ...

Article

The market for ‘tribal art’ emerged in the first decades of the 20th century. By way of avant-garde artists and pioneering dealers, African and Oceanic art slowly became accepted as ‘art’—with its inclusion in the Musée du Louvre in Paris in 2000 as a decisive endorsement. Initially, it was referred to as ‘primitive art’—alluding to an early ‘primitive’ stage in human development; later replaced by the equally biased ‘tribal art’. While still used widely among dealers and collectors (for want of a better word and being conveniently short), the term ‘tribe’, or its derivative ‘tribal’, is frowned upon by the scholarly community....

Article

Nancy Underhill

Australian painter and patron. In 1920 his private income allowed him to stop practising medicine and to study art in Paris, where he explored how geometry could influence painting. He exhibited work in London, Paris and Brussels that reflected his awareness of Surrealism and of Cubism; he was one of the first Australian artists to apply Cubist spatial theory to art. Despite Power’s art being of minor influence on Australian art, two of his paintings ...

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Nancy Underhill

Australian family of collectors. John Reed (b Evandale, Tasmania, 10 Dec 1901; d Bulleen, Victoria, 5 Dec 1981) and Sunday Reed [née Baillieu] (b Melbourne, 1905; d Bulleen, Victoria, 15/16 Dec 1981) were the most aggressive and possessive supporters of avant-garde painting in Melbourne during the 1940s. At their home, Heide, a changing group, of which Sidney Nolan, Joy Hester and Albert Tucker formed the core, read the work of T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, practised subjective or intuitive writing and engaged in figurative painting. Both the lifestyle and art practice at Heide flouted Australian support for official institutions and the retention of a national pastoral identity via landscape painting....

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Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages....

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Harley Preston

British collector of Australian birth. He was the younger son of Danish immigrants to New South Wales, his father being a wealthy Sydney business man with agricultural interests. He was educated at Sydney Grammar School and, from 1848, at Eton College, Berks, returning to Sydney in ...