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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in ...

Article

K. A. Ottenheym

Castle in Breda, north Brabant, Netherlands. It is one of the first examples of monumental Renaissance architecture in the Netherlands, constructed at a time (1530s) when large buildings there were still dominated by the Late Gothic style from Brabant. A fortress had stood on the site since the 13th century. In ...

Article

Maria Angela Mattevi

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (...

Article

Karin M. E. Alexis

Swedish royal fortification and residence in Mariefred, near Stockholm, begun in 1537 by King Gustav I. It is one of the finest remaining examples of Swedish architecture of the Vasa dynasty (1523–1600) founded by Gustav, and combines sophisticated Renaissance interiors with a form that remains essentially medieval. The site, strategic since Viking times, became more important during the Middle Ages when an estate and castle were erected in ...

Article

Former royal castle in north Zealand, Denmark. The medieval village of Hillerød can be deduced from the first mention, in 1275, of a manor house, Hillerødsholm, built on an islet in a marshy area surrounded by forests. In 1560 King Frederick II acquired Hillerødsholm and converted it into a royal residence, renaming it Frederiksborg. The plan of the existing castle is still based on Frederick’s hunting-lodge, with the buildings disposed on three islets in an artificial lake (dammed in the 1560s). The servants’ buildings on the first islet have been preserved, with heavy corner towers at the north bearing the King’s motto and the date ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English castle in Warwickshire. In 1265 the medieval castle at Kenilworth was granted by Henry III to his second son, Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, and for the next three centuries it was passed back and forth between the crown and various noble families. In ...

Article

Jiřina Hořejší

Renaissance palace in Litomyšl, 57 km south-east of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. The 16th-century building is one of the best examples of Czech Renaissance architecture. There was a fortified Slav settlement on the site, then a castle (first mentioned in ad 981) and from ...

Article

Martin Biddle

English 16th-century royal palace (destr.), built by Henry VIII between 1538 and 1547 on the site of the village of Cuddington, near Ewell (Surrey).

Construction began on 22 April 1538, the anniversary of Henry’s accession. The intention to create a nonpareil was there from the start, for the name first appears in the building accounts in ...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Palace in Spittal an der Drau, Carinthia, Austria. It was built as the residence of Gabriel of Salamanca (1489/90–1539), the Spanish chancellor and financier of Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia (later Holy Roman Emperor, reg 1558–64). Gabriel was created Graf von Ortenberg in ...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Austrian castle near Melk Abbey in Lower Austria. Situated among hills in the Danube valley, Schloss Schallaburg combines imposing medieval ruins with a splendid Renaissance palace. The high-medieval sections dating from the 11th and 12th centuries are dominated by a three-storey tower house and surrounded by crenellated walls; remains of the Romanesque crypt are preserved under the present chapel. The Losenstein family inherited the castle in ...