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Priscilla Boniface

Building for the projection and viewing of films. The term derives from cinématographie, the equipment devised for showing moving pictures patented by the Lumière brothers in France in 1895. Significant forerunners of this development include the Diorama, invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in 1822, and the ...


Alodie Larson

Building used for the storage of grain or other cereal, generally found with attached loading and distribution machinery in large agricultural areas, warehouses, and ports. The giant grain elevators of the 20th century developed as a result of the massive expansion of agriculture in the late 19th century in South America, Russia, and, above all, North America. During the 19th century industrialized countries in Europe experienced huge population increases, but agricultural output shrank, and most ceased to be self-sufficient in their food production; large-scale importation of grain thus became the norm. The use of pesticides and more efficient agricultural machinery led to increased agricultural productivity, and North America was in the forefront of this development, with its industrial design seen as a model for Europe. The latest structural developments were used in grain elevators, an innovative design being the iron-framed example (...


Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists....


Phyllis Lambert

Office building at 375 Park Avenue in midtown New York City by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson (see fig.), which marked a pivotal moment in the history of architecture. It was commissioned in the euphoria of post-war America in November 1954...


John Nelson Tarn and Matico Josephson

Multi-storey housing, specifically that provided for the working classes, as opposed to Apartment building, which refers to flats for the middle and upper classes. Although the term is known from the 16th century, it came into regular use during the 19th century and the early 20th. Tenements are separate dwellings or flats off a shared staircase and are a common building type in Scotland, northern Europe, and North America. Except for the developments described below, such housing is less frequent in England. In ancient Rome a similar block of workers’ housing was called an ...


Leonard K. Eaton

Building for the storage of goods, especially those in transit. In Western architecture the warehouse has a history that can be traced back to the ancient world, although this building type has also been of substantial architectural interest in other cultures. The earliest known examples are the ...


Margaret Moore Booker

Landmark structure built for the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 that was administered, designed, and decorated entirely by women. The Woman’s Building was the most publicized exhibition of women’s art in the 19th century.

A national competition for the building was held, to which 13 designs were submitted by women architects. Sophia G. Hayden (...