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Article

F. B. Sear and Zilah Quezado Deckker

Building or precinct with tiers of seats surrounding a central space used for public spectacles.

The Roman amphitheatre differs from a theatre in that it is elliptical in shape, has seats all round the arena and was used either for gladiatorial games or for contests between men and beasts. Under the arena floor were cages for the animals, and rooms and movable platforms for the props and scenery. Spectators were protected from the sun by a canvas awning suspended on ropes that were attached to masts around the top of the outer wall and secured to bollards at ground-level....

Article

Michael Forsyth

Building or part of a building in which public performances of music or events with musical accompaniment are held. The earliest public concerts in Europe were held in taverns, coffee-houses and assembly rooms. High-society concerts took place in the music- and ballrooms of such palaces as the ...

Article

Julia Robinson

American artists’ space located at 239 Thompson Street at the south edge of Washington Square in New York City. Beginning in the late 1950s the Judson Church hosted experimental avant-garde activities—art installations, Happenings, the beginnings of postmodern dance—launching a now celebrated group of artists, dancers, poets and composers, and fueling the radical downtown art scene. The platform of free expression Judson provided for the untested work of the 1960s generation, at a time when these artists were far from established, was a critical contribution to the invention, originality and ultimate international renown of these preeminent American artists....