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Abaneri [anc. Abhānagari]locked

  • Walter Smith

Temple site in north-eastern Rajasthan, India. It contains the fragmentary remains of two major monuments of the 8th century ad. The Chand Baori, a stepped ritual bathing tank c. 19 m deep, was probably built by Raja Chandra, from whom its name derives; an enclosing verandah dates to the 17th century. Although the Harshatmata Temple also dates to the 8th century, or early 9th, according to some scholars, a modern temple has been built over the original foundations, which include a broad platform and the lower walls of the original monument. A remarkable sequence of sculptures, showing primarily secular scenes, survives. These include kings with courtiers, musicians and couples (see fig.). The figural scenes are framed by pilasters carved with floral motifs and capped by elaborate interlaced pediments employing the gavākṣa (Skt: ‘cow’s-eye’) motif.

The sculpture of Abaneri extensively illustrates a phase of sculptural development midway between the Gupta style of the Mathura region and the abstracted linearized style adopted in northern India from the 10th century. Its style, often referred to as naturalistic, renders the figure with an energetic elasticity conveying both potential and actual movement. The profuse details, including facial expressions and gestures, are carved with great delicacy, and the high relief utilizes deep undercutting. Several of the ancient sculptures have been embedded into the walls of the modern temple, and numerous fragments—possibly from other temples no longer extant—lie about the site. Other pieces, including images of deities such as Ganesha, Durga and Gaja-Lakshmi and scenes from the life of Krishna, have been removed to the Archaeological Museum in Amer.

Bibliography

  • R. C. Agrawala: ‘Sculptures from Abaneri, Rajasthan’, Lalit Kala, 1–2 (1955–6), pp. 130–35
  • P. Jayakar: ‘Notes on Some Sculptures in situ at Abaneri, Rajasthan’, Lalit Kala, 1–2 (1955–6), pp. 139–44
  • K. C. Jain: Ancient Cities and Towns of Rajasthan (Delhi, 1972)
  • S. Gupta: Jaipur, Rajasthan District Gazetteer (Jaipur, 1987)

See also

Indian sub., §III, 5(i)(d): 6th–11th-cent. indigenous trad. arch.: Maharashtra

Indian sub., §III, 5(i)(e): 6th–11th-cent. indigenous trad. arch.: East

Indian sub., §III, 5(i)(d): 6th–11th-cent. indigenous trad. arch.: Maharashtra

Indian sub., §III, 5(i)(e): 6th–11th-cent. indigenous trad. arch.: East