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Abbasid  

Robert Hillenbrand

Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between ad 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from al-‛Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, and were thus able to claim a legitimacy that their predecessors had lacked (see Umayyad, §1). The Abbasids rose to power in north-east Iran by channelling disaffection with Umayyad rule, but they soon established their capitals in a more central location, founding ...

Article

Jane Geddes

Deluxe manuscript (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24) made in England around 1200. It is remarkable for its lavish illustrations, amply covered in gold leaf; for the wealth of its codicological data and for its close relationship to the Ashmole Bestiary. The book was left unfinished, so sketches and the detailed instructions for its colouring and assembly remain visible. The last few pages were completed in the 14th century. The book begins with a Creation cycle of full-page miniatures culminating in ...

Article

Acutus  

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active in Pianella during the second half of the 12th century.

Sculptor.

According to an inscription, this artist made the throne in S Angelo, Pranella.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Active probably active in Montamiata.

Miniaturist, calligrapher.

Tuscan School.

Adalbert collaborated in the writing and decoration of a Bible in four or five volumes for the Carthusian library in Calci, near Pisa, which was left by Cardinal Nicola di Prato to the Dominican monastery of Viterbo in ...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor, architect.

According to an inscription, this artist worked on the columns of the crypt of S Zeno, Verona.

Article

12th century, male.

Miniaturist.

Article

Ademar  

French, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist.

According to a document preserved in the Bibliothèque nationale de Paris, Ademar was a monk in a monastery in Limoges.

Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated ...

Article

Agnes  

German, 12th century, female.

Born 12th century.

Miniaturist.

A nun and the daughter of the Margrave Arnold von Meissen, Agnes was abbess of Quedlinburg from 1184 to 1203, and during this time she proved herself a distinguished miniaturist. A Gospel Book, of which she may have painted the initials, is attributed to her....

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist.

According to an inscription on a 12th-century bible (Paris), Aimardus worked on a liber floratum containing the Legend of St Martial of Limoges.

Article

Alamut  

Abbas Daneshvari

Mountainous valley in Iran, 35 km north-east of Qazvin, and the name of one of the fortresses that defended the valley. From 1090 to 1261 it was the main headquarters of the Nizari branch of the Isma‛ili Shi‛ites, a religious community organized on a military basis. Their rigid hierarchy, esoteric practices and use of terrorism encouraged the development of romantic tales about them. Reputed to use hashish, they became known in the West as ‘Assassins’ (Arab. ...

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Active in St-Denis.

Mosaicist.

Among the fragments of mosaic from St-Denis now in the Musée de Cluny there is one that carries the inscription: Hoc presbyter Albericus nobile fecit opus ( The priest Albericus made this noble work). These fragments are a unique example of the use of glass mosaic in monumental decoration....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor. Monuments.

Lombard School.

This artist was the sculptor, with his son Petrus, of one of the stone crucifixes in S Petronio, Bologna (1159). The work is a perfect example of the characteristics of Lombardian modelling in the 12th century....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist was probably working between 1190 and 1200.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Born c. 1103, in Reggio nell'Emilia.

Painter.

This artist's date of birth has been established by documents from the archives of S Prospero found in Reggio.

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist's name is found in the file of a legal case between the Chapter of Pisa Cathedral and the Gualandi family in the 12th century. The document is not dated but is thought to have been written in 1183...

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Miniaturist.

This artist was paid in Pisa in 1169 for having collaborated in the decoration of a Bible at the Charterhouse of Calci, near Pisa.

Article

French, 12th century, male.

Illuminator.

Burgundy School.

A certain Albertus, a native of Trier (Trèves), is mentioned among the abbots of the monastery of Cluny between 1109 and 1122 under the name of Pontius, and between 1122 and 1157 as Pierre. He worked at the same time as Opizon on an extraordinary Bible, the binding of which was encrusted with precious stones and which was kept in the library of Cluny. This magnificent book is no longer in existence, but we can assume that it was one of the masterpieces of this highly original school of which Cluny was the centre in the 12th century....

Article

Italian, 12th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

This artist is said to have painted a Romanesque crucifix in the cathedral of Spoleto. It is signed: Opus Albertini Sotti, 1187.

Article

Alchi  

W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery in a small valley on the left bank of the River Indus, c. 64 km west of Leh in Ladakh, India. Tradition attributes the monastery’s origin to the Tibetan scholar and temple-builder Rinchen Sangpo (ad 958–1055), the ‘great translator’, and although its buildings mostly date from the 11th century, the site is replete with his memory, from the ancient tree he planted to his portraits and images in the temples. A treasure-house of art, Alchi has been preserved because of its isolation from trade routes and the decline of its community, the monks of the Dromtön sect of the Kadampa order....