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Elizabeth P. Benson

Pre-Columbian Maya site in Retalhuleu, in the Highland Maya region, near the Pacific coast of Guatemala. It is best known for its monumental stone sculptures, some of which were recorded in the 19th century. The site lies partly on the Finca San Isidro Piedra Parada, and it was known by this name when ...

Article

Peter Grossmann

Site of a Christian city and pilgrimage centre in the Maryūt Desert, c. 45 km south-west of Alexandria, Egypt. It grew up around the shrine of St Menas, who was martyred during the persecution of the Christians instigated by Diocletian (reg 285–305). The ancient name of the site is not known, and the position of the saint’s grave had been long forgotten until, according to legend, several miracle cures led to its rediscovery. The place then quickly developed into an increasingly major centre of pilgrimage where, among other things, the so-called Menas ampules were manufactured as pilgrim flasks and achieved particular renown. The first excavations of the site were undertaken by ...

Article

Thorsten Opper

Elaborate monument erected by Octavian (later Augustus) in 29–27 bc on the Preveza Peninsula in Western Greece, north of the present-day town of Preveza, overlooking Cape Actium, to commemorate his naval victory over Mark Antony at Actium in 31 bc. The nearby city of Nikopolis...

Article

2nd century, male.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

According to an inscription from Delos, Adamas, an Athenian active at the end of the 2nd century BC, and his brothers Dionysodorus and Moschion made a statue ( Isis?) that was erected in Athens.

Article

1st century, male.

Born to a family originally from Ephesus.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agasias was a sculptor active in the first half of the 1st century BC. According to inscriptions from Delos, he made a number of portrait sculptures for the agora of that city. Two bases signed by him were found in the sanctuary dedicated to Poseidon on the island of Tenos. The inscriptions indicate that they supported a bronze group representing the ...

Article

1st century, male.

Born to a family originally from Ephesus.

Agasias is best known for the statue of the Borghese Warrior, now in the Louvre (a copy of a bronze original of the school of Lysippus or derived from an original from Pergamum). The letter forms date the inscription to the 1st century BC....

Article

2nd century, male.

Born to a family originally from Boeotia.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agatharchus' name appears in an inscription from the mid-2nd century BC found in the sanctuary of Amphiaraus at Oropus.

Article

2nd century, male.

Active in the first half of the second century BC.

Born to a family originally from Soloi.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

The signature of Agathocles was found at Rhodes.

Article

2nd – 1st century, male.

Active at the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 1st century BC.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agathocles is known from two inscriptions from the Acropolis at Lindos, one dated 104 BC, and the other (a statue of Timachidas son of Hagesitimus) from the time of the First Mithridatic War (88-84 BC)....

Article

2nd century, male.

Active at the end of the 2nd century BC.

Born to a family originally from Messene.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

The name of Agias appears on the base of a statue at Olympia.

Article

2nd century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 2nd century BC.

Sculptor.

Ancient Greek.

Agorallus' name is known from three signatures from Delos.

Article

Agrippa  

Luca Leoncini and Gordon Campbell

Roman military leader and patron. He was a faithful friend and supporter of Octavian (later Augustus, reg 27 bcad 14), whose daughter Julia he married in 21 bc. As admiral of Octavian’s navy he won the decisive sea battle of Actium against Mark Antony and Cleopatra in ...

Article

Colin McEwan

Pre-Columbian site in Manabí Province, Ecuador, 8 km inland in the Buenavista River Valley. It was a principal town, controlled by a lord, of the powerful indigenous polity of Salangome, recorded in 1528 by the navigator of the Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro. Human occupation at Agua Blanca spanned at least 5000 years and included components of all the principal ceramic-using cultures identified along Ecuador’s coasts. The ceramic sequence began with ...

Article

Gregory L. Possehl

Fortified site in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India. It flourished from c. 500 bc to ad 1100, and it was identified by Alexander Cunningham as the capital of North Panchala, an early kingdom mentioned in the Mahābhārata epic of the 1st millennium bc. The fortifications of the site measure 5.6 km in circuit, and the mounds within stand 23 m above the surrounding plain. Early visitors such as the 7th-century Chinese pilgrim ...

Article

Ye. V. Zeymal’

Site of a Hellenistic town of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, located at the confluence of the Kokcha and Pyandzh rivers (tributaries of the Amu River), northern Afghanistan. The site was excavated by the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan under Paul Bernard, from 1965 until the outbreak of the Afghan civil war in ...

Article

R. A. Tomlinson

Site of Greek settlement in north-west Turkey at Nemrud Kalesi, 35 km south of Pergamon. It is situated on a steep-sided hill easily accessible only from the north, about three hours walk inland from the modern coast road. Its foundation date is uncertain: although Herodotus (, ...

Article

Aizanoi  

William E. Mierse

Site of Hellenistic and Roman city, 54 km south-west of Kütahya in Turkey. Its remains comprise a Temple of Zeus, two agoras, a heroön, a macellum (market), a round structure with the Edict on Prices of Diocletian (ad 301) carved on its exterior walls, a stadium and theatre complex, a bath–gymnasium, bridges and quays. Most date to the 2nd century ...

Article

Ajanta  

Gary Michael Tartakov

Ancient Buddhist monastic and pilgrimage site (c. 200 bcad 500) located 100 km north of Aurangabad in the Sahyadri range of western India.

Ajanta is India’s richest surviving Buddhist complex. Far from any city, but close to the trade routes linking northern India with the western coast and the Deccan plateau, the monastery (...

Article

Akhmim  

Janice W. Yellin

Site of the capital of the 9th Upper Egyptian nome, 200 km north of Luxor, which flourished from Early Dynastic times to the Roman period (c. 2925 bcad 395). Apart from a few excavations during the 20th century, the ruins of the town, as well as temples and extensive cemeteries, have never been completely surveyed or excavated....

Article

Aksum  

Francis Anfray

Capital of the ancient kingdom of Aksum, in the modern Tigray Province of Ethiopia, c. 600 km north of Addis Ababa. It flourished between the 1st and 8th centuries ad. The modern town occupies part of the site, which faces south over a fertile plain at the foot of a flat-topped hill, Mt Beta Giyorgis. The ancient city’s importance is attested by the many monuments scattered throughout the modern town, including huge stelae and throne bases, broken pillars, inscriptions and royal hypogea. The first extensive investigations were undertaken in ...