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Abbasid  

Robert Hillenbrand

Islamic dynasty that ruled from several capitals in Iraq between ad 749 and 1258. The Abbasids traced their descent from al-‛Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, and were thus able to claim a legitimacy that their predecessors had lacked (see Umayyad, §1). The Abbasids rose to power in north-east Iran by channelling disaffection with Umayyad rule, but they soon established their capitals in a more central location, founding ...

Article

Jane Geddes

Deluxe manuscript (Aberdeen, U. Lib., MS. 24) made in England around 1200. It is remarkable for its lavish illustrations, amply covered in gold leaf; for the wealth of its codicological data and for its close relationship to the Ashmole Bestiary. The book was left unfinished, so sketches and the detailed instructions for its colouring and assembly remain visible. The last few pages were completed in the 14th century. The book begins with a Creation cycle of full-page miniatures culminating in ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian family of potters. The family is sometimes known, somewhat improperly, by the epithet Kashani [al-Kashani, Qashani], which refers to their home town, Kashan. It was a major centre for the production of lustre pottery in medieval Iran, and they were among the leading potters there, working in both the Monumental and the Miniature styles (...

Article

See Abu Tahir family

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active during the 13th century.

Miniaturist.

Sienese School.

This artist's name appears in archives in 1248.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Activec.1295.

Born in Brescia.

Painter, draughtsman, architect.

Article

German, 13th century, male.

Active in Bamberg (Bavaria).

Miniaturist.

A deacon, Adalbert is thought to have painted the miniatures in a work on the Life of Henry and Cunegonde (Royal Library, Bamberg). He was the son of Count Wolfram von Abensberg.

Bamberg (Staatsbibliothek): Life of Henry and Cunegonde,...

Article

German, 13th – 14th century, female.

Miniaturist, calligrapher.

Adelaide von Epfig was a nun at the convent of Unterlinden in Alsace, France, where she produced several outstanding works.

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Sculptor.

Agnolo di Ventura was a pupil of the Pisani School. He collaborated with Guido di Pace on the construction of the Grosseto palace, and on a number of works with Agostino di Giovanni. After 1349 his name no longer appears....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Naples.

Sculptor (stone/wood).

This artist is mentioned in about 1230.

Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born in Siena; died 1350.

Sculptor. Religious subjects. Statues, monuments.

Sienese School.

Agostino di Giovanni was a product of the Pisani School. He married in 1310 and had two sons, Giovanni and Domenico, who were chosen as 'capomaestri' for the construction of Siena Cathedral. He often worked with the former....

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter.

Bassano School.

This artist is mentioned as being in Bassano on 23 November 1290.

Article

Syrian, 13th century, male.

Metal worker.

Ahmad ibn Umar al Dhaki is thought to have come from Mosul, and had a famous workshop and numerous apprentices. Three leather objects, one in Cleveland Museum, one at the Louvre and one in a private collection in Switzerland, are signed by him and dated between ...

Article

Whitney S. Stoddard

Town in Gard, southern France, in the north-western section of the Rhône Delta or Camargue. It is one of the largest surviving medieval fortified towns. Although documents show that there was a port on the site of Aigues-Mortes in the late 12th century and first third of the 13th, the town was officially not founded until the Charter of ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Genoa.

Painter.

Genoese School.

In 1261 this artist took into his studio as an apprentice a certain Tealdino di Rubaldo from Chiavari. He is probably the same painter as the Aimerio referred to in 1280 in Vercelli.

Article

Nabil Saidi

Ottoman calligrapher. Yaqut served as secretary to the last Abbasid caliph, al-Musta‛sim (reg 1242–58), and reportedly survived the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258 by seeking refuge in a minaret. He perfected the ‘proportioned script’ developed by Ibn Muqla and refined by ...

Article

See Mamluk family

Article

Persian School, 13th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 13th century.

Born probably, in Wasit.

Painter.

Yahya ibn Mahmud al-Wasiti was a painter and calligrapher. He provided illustrations for a manuscript of al-Hariri’s Assemblies ( Maqamat) dated 1237 and now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. The stylistic discrepancies between the different miniatures that appear in this manuscript make it difficult to discern the originality of al-Wasiti....

Article

Alain  

French, 13th century, male.

Sculptor.

This artist is mentioned in a document of 1292 as being in Paris.

Article

Alamut  

Abbas Daneshvari

Mountainous valley in Iran, 35 km north-east of Qazvin, and the name of one of the fortresses that defended the valley. From 1090 to 1261 it was the main headquarters of the Nizari branch of the Isma‛ili Shi‛ites, a religious community organized on a military basis. Their rigid hierarchy, esoteric practices and use of terrorism encouraged the development of romantic tales about them. Reputed to use hashish, they became known in the West as ‘Assassins’ (Arab. ...