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Zdisław Żygulski jr

Polish textile artist. She studied at the College of Fine Arts, Sopot, and graduated in 1955 from the Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw. At the beginning of her career she was interested in drawing, painting and sculpture, but after 1960 she concentrated on textile arts in the broad sense of the term. Breaking with tradition, she initiated bold experiments with fibre and fabric. Her work contributed to the revolutionary textile movement known as ...

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French sculptor, printmaker and tapestry designer. His father was a jeweller, and after his return from World War I in 1918 Adam worked in his studio and learnt how to engrave. At the same time he studied drawing at the Ecole Germain-Pilon and read Charles Baudelaire’s ...

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Courtney Ann Shaw

American tapestry artist, painter and stained-glass designer. Adams studied painting at Syracuse University and with Hans Hoffmann in New York, where he was influenced by the medieval tapestries in the Cloisters and also by the work of Matisse. In the 1950s Adams was apprenticed to the influential French tapestry designer ...

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Gordon Campbell

Type of 15th-century Spanish carpet, possibly woven in the Mercian villages of Letur or Liétor. Like Alcaraz carpets, they are tied with the Spanish knot. The name derives from the fact that many carpets of this type bear arms of the Enríquez family, hereditary admirals of Castile; others embody the arms of Maria of Castile (queen of Alfonso V of Aragon)....

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Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Lebanese–American artist and writer. Daughter of a Greek Christian mother and a Syrian Muslim father, she was educated in Lebanon and at universities in France and the United States. For many years she taught the philosophy of art at Dominican College, San Rafael, CA. She also lectured and taught at many other colleges and universities until her retirement in the late 1970s. Also a novelist and poet, she combined Arabic calligraphy with modern language in her drawings, paintings, ceramics and tapestries. She explored the relationship between word and image in over 200 “artist books,” in which she transcribed in her own hand Arabic poetry from a variety of sources....

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Adrian  

Ann Poulson

American costume and fashion designer. Adrian is best known for his costume designs for Hollywood films and his signature women’s suits (see fig.). Adrian was educated at the School for Fine and Applied Arts (now Parsons School of Design) in New York and Paris. He began his career in New York by designing costumes for Irving Berlin’s ...

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Elise L. Smith

Flemish tapestry-maker. He was the son of Pieter van Edingen Aelst, also a weaver of tapestries, and a member of his father’s workshop in Brussels. In 1509 he was cited as a restorer of Margaret of Austria’s collection of tapestries. In 1517 he was paid for tapestries of David and John the Baptist made for ...

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Gordon Campbell

Workshop founded in Bologna in 1898 by the architect Alfonso Rubbiani (1848–1913), modelled on the English Arts and Crafts Movement; its formal name was Società Cooperativa Aemilia Ars. At first the workshop produced a wide range of products, including glass and pottery, but from ...

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Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1418, in Florence; died before 1498, in Perugia.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Florentine School, Perugian School.

The son of the weaver Antonio di Duccio, Agostino d'Antonio di Duccio produced works in marble and terracotta of the Della Robbia type. His earliest known works are four low reliefs in Modena Cathedral. While living in Florence in ...

Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Ainu  

Hans Dieter Ölschleger

Peoples who once lived in northern Japan and are now restricted to the islands of Hokkaido (Japan), southern Sakhalin and the Kuril chain. The Ainu live in an area that has been influenced by Chinese, Siberian and especially Japanese culture. Until the 17th century, when the Ainu began to practise small-scale agriculture in south-western Hokkaido, they subsisted by fishing and hunter–gathering. Although the gradual Japanese colonization of Hokkaido had almost eradicated Ainu culture by the early 20th century, the post-war period has witnessed a revival of Ainu culture and language....

Article

Bolaji V. Campbell

Nigerian sculptor and textile artist. He started out as a bricklayer and received no formal training. One of his earliest commissions was for 12 cement pieces for Ulli Beier’s Mbari-Mbayo Club at Oshogbo. He exhibited internationally in the 1960s and 1970s and is best known for his public pieces, such as openwork cement screens based on Yoruba doors (...

Article

Pamela Elizabeth Grimaud

French fashion designer, of Tunisian birth. Alaïa is renowned for his ‘second skin’ fashions and masterful cutting techniques (see fig.). Christened the ‘King of Cling’ by fashion journalists, Alaïa rose to prominence in the 1980s following years of realizing commissions for a loyal and select clientele. His designs are modern, overtly feminine in their celebration of the female form and, in Alaïa’s own words: ‘not sexy, voluptuous’. Alaïa’s sculpted fashions have been known to render other designers’ fashions unwearable—they simply feel too large in comparison....

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French, 18th century, male.

Born 1728, in Lautrec (Tarn); died probably, in Lautrec (Tarn).

Painter, decorative artist, tapestry maker.

Alaux's father was Pierre Alaux, a master tapestry maker, and his grandfather was Gilles Alaux, a master sculptor.

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1690, in Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne); died before 1753.

Tapestry maker.

Alaux was the son of the master sculptor Gilles Alaux.

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 12 June 1899, in Berlin; died 10 May 1994, in Orange (Connecticut), USA.

Draughtswoman, textile designer, printmaker.

Having studied in Berlin and Hamburg, Anni Albers went on to study at the Bauhaus from 1922 to 1930...

Article

Anna Nilsén

Painter and textile designer, active in Sweden. He was probably of German origin. He married in 1473 and was a burgher of Stockholm, where he ran a workshop for liturgical embroidery. Apparently well-to-do, during the years 1501–7 he paid a higher tax than any other painter in Stockholm. About this time he also seems to have delivered an altarpiece to the Brigittine convent of Naantali (Swed. Nådendal) in Finland. He is last mentioned in ...

Article

Alcaraz  

Gordon Campbell

Spanish centre of carpet production in Murcia. Alcaraz was one of the two principal centres (together with Cuenca) of carpet production in 15th- and 16th-century Spain. The hand-knotted carpets are tied with a single-warp symmetrical knot (known as the Spanish knot) on an undyed woollen foundation. Several surviving 15th-century examples imitate Turkish carpets of the ‘Holbein’ variety, but the colouring is often different (Turkish red being replaced by blue and gold) and in the borders the Kufic inscriptions are replaced by geometrical or floral patterns. In the 16th century the red colouring became less vivid, possibly because of problems with the cochineal dye imported from Mexico. There was considerable variety of design, but in the 15th century the most common pattern consisted of wheels in rectangular compartments; in the 16th century the wheels softened into wreaths and the compartments assumed a variety of shapes or disappeared altogether....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of lace produced in France. In 1675 a group of 30 Venetian lacemakers was settled in the Norman town of Alençon by Jean-Baptiste Colbert (Louis XIV’s minister of finance). The Venetians instructed local needlewomen in point de Venise, but by the 1690s the distinctive local style known as ...

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