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Dominique Collon, Donald F. Easton, Jeanny Vorys Canby, J. D. Hawkins, K. Aslihan Yener, Oscar White Muscarella and A. Nunn

Region roughly equivalent to the modern state of Turkey. The name Anatolia was first used by Byzantine writers in the 10th century ad, as an alternative to Asia Minor, and is now often used in its Turkish form, ‘Anadolu’, to describe Turkey in Asia. In this article the term ancient Anatolia covers the cultures and civilizations that flourished in the region from possibly as early as the 14th millennium ...

Article

Group of Caribbean Islands comprising Cuba, Republic of, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, the last divided into Haiti, Republic of and the Dominican Republic. Prior to contact with the Spanish colonists, the art of the Greater Antilles was relatively unified. However, after colonization traditions soon separated....

Article

D. T. Potts, J. Schmidt, Paolo M. Costa and Alessandro De Maigret

Region in which diverse cultures and civilizations flourished from c. 4500 bc to the rise of Islam in the early 7th century ac. Throughout history the term Arabia has varied according to changing political and cultural conditions. In this article it denotes the Arabian peninsula as far north as the borders of Jordan and Iraq. For regions north of this modern boundary ...

Article

Robert D. McChesney, B. I. Marshak, T. I. Zeymal’, Henri-Paul Francfort, Ye. V. Zeymal’, N. B. Nemtseva, L. I. Rempel’, G. L. Semenov, Roya Marefat, Yu. A. Rapoport, B. Ya. Stavisky, V. A. Ranov, A. A. Ivanov, M. M. Ashrafi, Anna Jeroussalimskaja, T. G. Yemel’yanenko, M. V. Gorelik, Ye. G. Tsareva, G. B. Shishkina, Ludvik Kalus, V. I. Raspopova, A. V. Sedov, L. A. Chvyr, V. A. Meshkeris, J. M. Rogers, V. G. Shkoda, Monique Maillard, H.-J. Klimkeit, Robert Jera-Bezard, Catherine Uray-Köhalmi, Lore Sander, Corinne Debaine-Francfort, Joe Cribb, Ken Teague, Jean-Pierre Drège, Henrik H. Sørensen and Krishna Riboud

In  Central Asia

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Article

Arita  

Hiroko Nishida

Region in Japan, now part of Saga Prefecture, and the name of a type of porcelain first produced there during the early Edo period (1600–1868). The ware was originally known as Imari yaki (‘Imari ware’) because it was shipped from the port of Imari (Saga Prefect.). During the Meiji period (...

Article

Pina Belli D’Elia and Roberto Coroneo

Regional capital and port in Apulia, southern Italy. The site of an important Greek colony, Bari may have been inhabited from 1500 BC. After the Roman conquest, in the 3rd century BC, the port developed, and the city became an important agricultural and commercial centre with communications to both East and West. The diocese of Bari was founded in ...

Article

Izumi Shimada

Region in La Leche Valley on the north coast of Peru, which contains numerous archaeological sites. The central part of the valley, over 55 sq. km in area, has been designated the Poma National Archaeological and Ecological Reserve because of the concentration of some 30 major Pre-Columbian cemeteries and mounds nested within dense semi-tropical thorny native forest. The most notable period of local cultural development was the Middle Sicán (...

Article

Lyn Rodley and Nicole Thierry

Region of central Anatolia, now in Turkey.

The region known in ancient times as Greater Cappadocia extends from Lake Tatta eastwards to the River Euphrates. It was bordered to the south by Cilicia, and to the north lay Pontus, which before the late 4th century ...

Article

Carnac  

P. R. Giot

Region of north-west France, centre of the principal concentration of prehistoric megalithic monuments (see Megalithic architecture, §2) in Brittany. Situated south-west of Vannes, the area includes the parishes of Carnac and Locmariaquer, extending to Quiberon. The monuments include more than a hundred passage graves (dolmens) and many standing stones (menhirs) arranged singly or in groups including large alignments (...

Article

Robert D. McChesney, B. I. Marshak, T. I. Zeymal’, Henri-Paul Francfort, Ye. V. Zeymal’, N. B. Nemtseva, L. I. Rempel’, G. L. Semenov, Roya Marefat, Yu. A. Rapoport, B. Ya. Stavisky, V. A. Ranov, A. A. Ivanov, M. M. Ashrafi, Anna Jeroussalimskaja, T. G. Yemel’yanenko, M. V. Gorelik, Ye. G. Tsareva, G. B. Shishkina, Ludvik Kalus, V. I. Raspopova, A. V. Sedov, L. A. Chvyr, V. A. Meshkeris, J. M. Rogers, V. G. Shkoda, Monique Maillard, H.-J. Klimkeit, Robert Jera-Bezard, Catherine Uray-Köhalmi, Lore Sander, Corinne Debaine-Francfort, Joe Cribb, Ken Teague, Jean-Pierre Drège, Henrik H. Sørensen and Krishna Riboud

Region of the Asian land mass. Largely through its location, topography and hydrology, it has served for millennia as the carrier of human communications between the societies and civilizations of south, west, north and east Asia. Its position at the junction of these lines of communication and the favourable environmental conditions for the establishment and maintenance of settled societies there produced a region with a distinct identity, amalgamating the various intellectual, artistic, political and ethnic currents that flowed through it and fashioning a comparatively pluralistic and syncretistic civilization. In historical thought and writing from Herodotus (...