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Shannen Hill

Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’, was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that curtailed the economic, political, and social rights of black, coloured, and Indian people. Enforced through the legislation of the National Party, apartheid was the rule of the land between ...

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Gavin Stamp

English architect and writer, also active in South Africa and India . He was articled to a cousin, Arthur Baker, a former assistant of George Gilbert Scott I, in 1879 and attended classes at the Architectural Association and Royal Academy Schools before joining the office of ...

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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

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Italo Zannier

British photographers of Italian origin. Antonio Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Luxor, 1903) and his brother Felice [Felix] Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Mandalay, after 1904) were for many years thought to be one person with two names, Antonio and Felice, and only recently has the mystery been solved of the almost contemporaneous presence of a Beato in two different (and often very distant) places. The misunderstanding arose from the fact that both their names (Antonio Felice Beato) appear on several photographs. A closer inquiry brought to light a letter written by Antonio and published in the French paper, ...

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Susan Kart

(b Mbarara, 1963). Ugandan photographer, film maker, and installation artist of Indian descent, active in the UK. Bhimji was born in Uganda to Indian parents. The family fled Uganda to England in 1972 due to President Idi Amin’s expulsion of all Asians and Asian-Ugandans from the country along with seizure of their property and businesses as part of his ‘economic war’ on Asia. Bhimji studied art at Goldsmiths College and the Slade School of Art in London and her photographic work primarily consists of close-up, sometimes abstracted glimpses of seemingly abandoned spaces, objects, and landscapes. Bhimji’s work focuses on India and Uganda, which are treated as almost anthropomorphic subjects that appear restless, unfinished, abandoned, or frozen in her photographs, films, and film stills. Bhimji was one of four shortlisted finalists for the Turner Prize in ...

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H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. Educated in the Netherlands, he studied Dutch literature at Leiden University (1906) but then specialized in Sanskrit and Indian archaeology. He was appointed adjunct archaeologist of the Archaeological Survey in Batavia (now Jakarta) under N. J. Krom at the end of ...

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Anthony D. King

Enclosed and secure space, generally walled or fenced to keep intruders out and also, in different contexts, to keep inhabitants in. In the East and other post-colonial regions, ‘compound’ designates an enclosed space with one or more buildings, frequently occupied by people sharing a nationality or ethnicity other than that of the country in which the compound exists. It can also mean a separate space occupied by members of a kin group....

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Susan Kart

(b Nairobi, 1958). Kenyan photographer, multimedia and performance artist, and teacher of Indian descent, active in the USA. DeSouza was born in Kenya to Indian parents. Raised in London from the age of 7, he called his background that of a ‘double colonial history’. DeSouza attended Goldsmiths College in London and the Bath Academy of Art, and although he has worked primarily in photography and as a writer on contemporary art, he has also branched out into performance art, digital painting, and textual and mixed media arts. He moved to the USA in ...

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Ebony  

Gordon Campbell

Hard black wood, obtained from various species of the family Ebenaceae, especially Diospyros ebenum (sourced by the British from Sri Lanka and the French from Madagascar) and Diospyros melanoxylon (Zebra-wood from the Coromandel Peninsula in New Zealand) but also species such as Brya ebenus (the Jamaican rain tree)....

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Emerald  

Gordon Campbell

Green variety of Beryl, mined in Upper Egypt and India from antiquity and in Colombia both before and after the Spanish Conquest. Nero is said to have watched gladiatorial contests through an emerald. The two best-known emeralds are the Devonshire Emerald (London, Nat. Hist. Mus.) and the Patricia Emerald (New York, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). The most famous historical emeralds are the 453 emeralds (totalling ...

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R. N. Mehta

City at the mouth of the Mali River, c. 84 km south of Ahmadabad in Gujarat, India. Although it was a flourishing commercial centre from the 8th to the 18th century ad, Khambhat’s many Hindu and Jaina temples were destroyed by ‛Ala al-Din Khalji (...

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French and Ivorian, 20th century, female.

Born in Hué, Vietnam.

Sculptor (marble/bronze/wood), installation artist, designer. Artists’ books.

Born of a Vietnamese mother and a French father, Dominique Le Houelleur holds a passion for Africa and lives and works in the Ivory Coast. A self-taught artist, she sought guidence from the Italian sculptor Giorgio Angeli in Querceta where she also met the Japanese sculptor Isamu Noguchi. In ...

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Lotus  

Eva Wilson

Term for two distinct decorative motifs based on types of water-lily; one originated in Egypt, the other in India. Lotus motifs in Egypt occur from the beginning of the Dynastic period c. 3000 bc in two stylized forms. The curved outline of the flower-head distinguishes the motif based on the white-flowered ...