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Article

Annemarie Weyl Carr

German scholar of Byzantine, East Christian and European illuminated manuscripts. He took his degree in 1933 at the University of Hamburg in the heady community of the Warburg Library (later Institute) under the tutelage of Erwin Panofsky and Fritz Saxl. Immigrating with the Warburg staff and library to London in ...

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British writer and traveller. His travels in Greece in 1925–7 resulted in two books, The Station and The Byzantine Achievement, in which he presented readers brought up on the culture of Classical antiquity with a novel view of the importance of the civilization of Byzantium and the seminal influence of its art on the later development of European painting. In ...

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In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

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John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript (Moscow, Hist. Mus. MS. D.29). It is a small Marginal Psalter (195×150 mm) of 169 folios, in which broad spaces were left blank on the outer edges of the pages to be filled with numerous unframed illustrations, glossing the biblical text in various ways (...

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript (London, BL, Cotton MS. Otho B. VI), probably of the late 5th century ad. It consists of the fragments of 129 folios, shrunken and charred by a fire in 1731, which are all that remain of one of the most profusely illustrated and magnificent books of the period. The manuscript has long been the focus of scholarly attention, and work on a facsimile was begun in ...

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Florentine Mütherich

The manuscript (Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Clm. 4453) comprises 276 pages measuring 334×242 mm; it has been preserved with its original front cover, in the centre of which is a 10th-century Byzantine ivory representing the Dormition of the Virgin. It was produced on the island of Reichenau ...

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. palat. gr. 431). It consists of 15 separate sheets of parchment, which were originally pasted together to form a roll 315 mm high and 10.42 m long. Although its manufacture is now dated to the mid-10th century (Weitzmann), a wide range of earlier dates were proposed in the older literature. On one side of the parchment is a continuous picture frieze, illustrating events from Joshua 2:15–10:27, with brief biblical excerpts in a contemporary hand below; the ...

Article

Valerie Nunn

The earliest surviving illustrated Byzantine Bible (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Reg. gr. 1), produced in the 9th century ad or the first half of the 10th. It is named after the Byzantine official who commissioned it and is also known as the Bible of Queen ...

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John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated calendar manuscript (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Vat. gr. 1613) of 439 pages (363×287 mm). It covers the first half of the administrative year (1 Sept–28 Feb) and contains up to eight commemorations for each day. It is presumed to be the surviving first volume of a two-volume set and, according to the dedicatory poem on p. XIII, was made for Emperor ...

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Susan Pinto Madigan

Byzantine painter. The name ‘Pantoleon zographos’ (Gr.: ‘painter’) appears next to 79 of the 430 miniatures in the Basil II, Menologion of (976–1025) (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. gr. 1613). Pantoleon worked in Constantinople (now Istanbul), where he painted miniatures and icons and, according to a ...

Article

Byzantine illuminated manuscript. It contains a collection of 52 homilies by Bishop Gregory of Nazianzus (329–89) on 468 folios (418×305 mm; Paris, Bib. N., MS. gr. 510). It is prefaced by full-page miniatures of Christ Enthroned; Emperor Basil I Flanked by Elijah and Gabriel; Empress Eudokia, with her Sons Leo and Alexander...

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript. Comprised of 449 folios (360×260 mm; Paris, Bib. N., MS. gr. 139), it contains the Psalter with a catena. It has occupied a key position in the study of Byzantine art since the late 19th century. The prefatory image of the youthful shepherd David, in the guise of Orpheus, charming the natural world and accompanied by a personification of Melody (fol. 1...

Article

Debra Higgs Strickland

Early Christian allegorical and moralizing text about animals originally composed in Greek by an unknown author, probably during the 2nd century ad in Alexandria. The precise meaning of the name, Physiologus, is unclear, but it has been translated as ‘The Naturalist’ or ‘Natural Philosopher’. The text’s narrator discourses on the natural world, combining ancient animal myth and lore with biblical references in order to draw allegorical parallels between animal and human behaviour with references to Christ, the Devil and the Jews. For example, the hoopoe chicks’ diligent and loving care of their ageing parents is held up as an admirable example of obeying God’s commandment to ‘honour thy father and mother’. The panther, whose sweet breath attracts all animals except the dragon, is likened to the sweetness of Christ, which attracts everyone but the Devil. The unclean hyena, known to change its sex from male to female and back again, is compared to ‘the duplicitous Jews, who first worshiped the true God but were later given over to idolatry’. As testimony to its wide popularity, the Greek ...

Article

Robert G. Calkins

Manuscript written on purple-dyed parchment. Almost always combined with the use of gold or silver script (see Chrysography), such books were particularly prevalent in the Byzantine East in the 5th and 6th centuries ad and in the West from the 8th to the 11th centuries in Carolingian, Ottonian and (rarely) Insular works. The use of ...

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript, attributed to the 6th century ad. It is considered to be the earliest surviving illustrated New Testament, probably antedating the Syriac Rabbula Gospels of ad 586 by a generation or two. The manuscript (Rossano, Mus. Dioc.), which is now incomplete, consists of a prefatory cycle of illustrations and the texts of Matthew and almost all of Mark. It is probably the surviving first volume of a large, two-volume Gospel Book (...

Article

Spanish, 16th century, male.

Died 1533, in Naples.

Painter, illuminator.

Antonio Vazquez worked for the monastery of Monteoliveto Maggiore near Siena, where he executed a Virgin and Child in Byzantine style.

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., cod. theol. gr. 31), attributed to the 6th century ad. Since the late 19th century it has been one of the most intensely studied Byzantine manuscripts. Only a fragment of the original survives, consisting of 24 single leaves of purple-dyed parchment, varying in size between 307×250 mm and 333×270 mm. Each page is divided approximately in half, with the biblical text of Genesis written entirely in silver in the upper part, and an accompanying miniature (48 in total) in the lower part (...