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Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in ...

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1861, in Vienna; died 20 February 1927, in Klosterneuburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Adolf Böhm was a co-founder, together with Gustav Klimt and the architect Joseph Hoffmann, of the Viennese Sezession movement in the closing years of the 19th century. Vienna was the city where 'Jugendstil' (literally, 'Youthful Style'), a movement that rejected academic conformity, first flowered; it would later spread to Germany, France, Belgium, England and elsewhere. He taught in the women's department of the academy of fine arts ...

Article

David Walker

Scottish architect. The son of the Glasgow architect John Burnet (1814–1900), he was a Beaux-Arts-trained classicist who became a modernist. Encouraged by R. Phené Spiers (1838–1916) to study at the Atelier Jean-Louis Pascal, Paris, during his time there (1875–7) he formed life-long friendships with Pascal and Henri-Paul Nénot. The first building wholly to his design was the Glasgow Fine Art Institute (...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1875, in Ath; died 1952, in Brussels.

Painter, architect. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Murals.

Art Nouveau.

After studying architecture at the art school in Antwerp, Paul Cauchie trained as a painter at the Brussels academy under Portaels. He also worked in Holland....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1940.

Born 4 August 1883, in Bordeaux; died 24 August 1950, in New York.

Decorative artist, architect, designer, draughtsman. Furniture.

Art Deco.

Pierre Chareau worked in France until 1939, then went to live in New York. He regularly participated in the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs in Paris. In ...

Article

Sandra L. Tatman

American architectural competition held in 1922 by the Chicago Tribune newspaper for its new corporate headquarters. The competition changed American views of European modernism and the course of American Skyscraper architecture. The 1922 Chicago Tribune Competition’s call for competitors attracted more than 260 architects from 23 countries with the offer of a $50,000 prize for the winning design. Although the company may have issued this competition as a way of attracting attention to its newspaper, competitors from around the world, drawn by what was in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1861, in Toulouse; died 16 October 1937, in Pinsaguel.

Painter, designer, designer of ornamental architectural features. Portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Joseph Des Essars Professionally he was best known as a designer and bookbinder. He painted landscapes of the south-western region of France where he was born; his stays in Algeria and Tunisia, however, showed him to be something of an Orientalist attracted by the light and colours of North Africa....

Article

Jordi Oliveras

Spanish Catalan architect, professor, historian, and politician. He is considered one of the protagonists of Catalan architectural Modernism, which is characterized by the doctrine of Rationalism, and which contrasted with the more expressionist Modernism headed by Gaudí. His essay ‘En busca de una arquitectura nacional’ in the magazine ...

Article

Gisela Moeller

German architect, designer, writer and teacher. After moving to Munich in 1892, he abandoned his plan to become a teacher, deciding on a career as a freelance scholar. He then studied aesthetics, psychology and philosophy, being particularly influenced by the lectures of the psychologist Theodor Lipps. He also studied German literature, art and music. In ...

Article

Peter Blundell Jones

German architect and teacher. He studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Munich, before working for Paul Wallot on the Reichstag in Berlin (1884–94). On returning to Munich, he worked for Gabriel von Seidl and started his own practice. In 1893 Fischer was appointed head of the new planning office in Munich, shaping the developing outskirts of the city and erecting his first public buildings, a series of schools influential throughout Germany, for example a school at Elisabethplatz, Munich (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 July 1877, in Paris; died 1941, in Ste-Maxime.

Designer, architect.

Art Nouveau, Art Deco.

Paul Follot studied under Eugène Samuel Grasset, who was renowned as an interior decorator. He exhibited in Paris at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Salon d'Automne and Salon des Artistes Décorateurs, in which he was very active....

Article

Asko Salokorpi

Finnish architect and writer. He became known as an aggressive opponent of the National Romantic style in architecture, which had begun as a reform movement, taking its inspiration from the English Arts and Crafts Movement. In Finland, however, where its most important representatives were Eliel Saarinen and Lars Sonck, the movement’s picturesque and romantic manifestations achieved great popularity. In ...

Article

Gilles Ragot

French architect, urban planner and writer. Regarded as a precursor of the Modern Movement in France, paradoxically he was absent from the debates that enlivened architectural and urban-planning circles between World Wars I and II. He built only c. 15 works, all in the area around Lyon. A winner of the Grand Prix de Rome and recognized by his profession, he was regularly published in architectural reviews. His fame and influence on the Modern Movement in the 1920s and 1930s was due to a theoretical project for a ...

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 June 1852, in Reus (Catalonia); died 10 June 1926, in Barcelona.

Architect, sculptor, decorative designer.

Art Nouveau.

Antoni Gaudí y Cornet was descended from a branch of the Gaudin family of Clermont-Ferrand. His father was a coppersmith and then an inspector of weights and measures. The family lived in the town of Reus in the province of Tarragona. Gaudí was very influenced by his environment and a keen observer of nature, the sea, the mountains and the organic structure of things around him. He became an architect in ...

Article

Richard Longstreth

American architect. The son of a building contractor, he was trained in Chicago in the offices of the architects Joseph Lyman Silsbee and Adler & Sullivan. Health considerations prompted his move to San Diego in 1893. Establishing an independent practice there, Gill remained in southern California for the rest of his life. Most of his commissions were for houses, apartment complexes, and institutional buildings in residential districts....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 10 March 1867, in Lyons; died 1942, in New York.

Architect, sculptor.

Art Nouveau.

Guimard was a student of Genuys at the École des Arts Décoratifs, and of Raulin at the École des Beaux-Arts. He exhibited his sketches and drawings in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français, then at the Société Nationale. From ...

Article

Gudrun Schmidt

German painter. His artistic talent was recognized in 1827, while he was at school in Düsseldorf. The same year he embarked on a course in architecture at the Akademie in Düsseldorf. In 1828 he turned to the study of history painting. After a difference of opinion over the theory of art with the Director of the Akademie, Wilhelm von Schadow, Hasenclever went home to Remscheid. There he taught himself portrait painting. An example of his work from this period is the portrait of ...

Article

Eveline Vermeulen

Dutch architect and designer. He studied from 1906 to 1911 at the Birmingham School of Art, where he was influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, the Glasgow school and the theories of W. R. Lethaby. He then studied (1911–14) at the Architectural Association in London, where he met David Bomberg and became acquainted with the Futurist and Vorticist avant-garde. His first executed designs—Løvdalla (...

Article

Adam M. Thomas

American painter of German birth. Kelpe moved to Hannover to study art and architecture in 1919. In the early 1920s he was exposed to the leading abstract trends in European modernism, including Suprematism and Constructivism. Kelpe developed an abstract painting vocabulary characterized by geometric order, hard edges, overlapping planes, and interpenetrating shapes before immigrating to the United States in ...

Article

N. Mens

Dutch architect and teacher. After studying in the 1880s at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague, he worked as an independent architect in Amsterdam from 1890. Shortage of commissions led him to concentrate initially on competition entries, in which he developed his drawing skills. Although he has been categorized as belonging to Art Nouveau, he challenged this style for relegating the architect to the position of designer. His architectural approach was based on what he called ‘the moulding of cubic masses’, for which he regarded brick as the most effective material. His first large commission was the American Hotel (...