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Article

Joan Marter

Ukrainian sculptor, active in Paris and in the USA. He began studying painting and sculpture at the School of Art in Kiev in 1902 but was forced to leave in 1905 after criticizing the academicism of his instructors. In 1906 he went to Moscow, where, according to the artist, he participated in some group exhibitions (Archipenko, p. 68). In ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1893; died 1976.

Sculptor.

Christian Berg belongs to the pioneering generation of modern Swedish sculpture. Influenced from the 1920s by the rhythm of geometric Cubism, he was also interested in the so-called 'classical' sculpture of 1900. He sculpted reliefs with hollows and negative volumes, as well as reliefs in the round with positive volumes. In the scale and harmony of his sculpture, Berg approaches the spirit of antiquity in his reflective and well-constructed work....

Article

Lewis Kachur

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912...

Article

Susan Compton

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, designer, sculptor, ceramicist, and writer of Belarusian birth. A prolific artist, Chagall excelled in the European tradition of subject painting and distinguished himself as an expressive colourist. His work is noted for its consistent use of folkloric imagery and its sweetness of colour, and it is characterized by a style that, although developed in the years before World War I, underwent little progression throughout his long career (see.g. ...

Article

Ronald Alley

French sculptor of Hungarian birth. He studied at the school of Decorative Arts in Budapest from 1904 to 1905. In 1908 he went to Paris and settled in the block of studios La Ruche, where he was a neighbour of Fernand Léger, Alexander Archipenko, Henri Laurens, Marc Chagall and Chaim Soutine. He joined the ...

Article

Cubism  

Christopher Green and John Musgrove

Term derived from a reference made to ‘geometric schemas and cubes’ by the critic Louis Vauxcelles in describing paintings exhibited in Paris by Georges Braque in November 1908; it is more generally applied not only to work of this period by Braque and Pablo Picasso but also to a range of art produced in France during the later 1900s, the 1910s and the early 1920s and to variants developed in other countries. Although the term is not specifically applied to a style of architecture except in former Czechoslovakia (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 January 1889, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Georges Deniker studied under Manolo (Manuel Ugne), while at the same time training for the consular service. He was involved in the Cubist movement. During the 1914-1918 war he apparently served in a balloon unit and it was during this period that he invented 'string sculpture'. He later exhibited in Paris at the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Tuileries. While posted to China he studied the ancient Chinese masters and returned to France with numerous drawings....

Article

Francis M. Naumann

French painter, sculptor and writer, active also in the USA. The art and ideas of Duchamp, perhaps more than those of any other 20th-century artist, have served to exemplify the range of possibilities inherent in a more conceptual approach to the art-making process. Not only is his work of historical importance—from his early experiments with Cubism to his association with Dada and Surrealism—but his conception of the ready-made decisively altered our understanding of what constitutes an object of art. Duchamp refused to accept the standards and practices of an established art system, conventions that were considered essential to attain fame and financial success: he refused to repeat himself, to develop a recognizable style or to show his work regularly. It is the more theoretical aspects implicit to both his art and life that have had the most profound impact on artists later in the century, allowing us to identify Duchamp as one of the most influential artists of the modern era....

Article

Marie-Noelle de Grandry-Pradel

French sculptor and draughtsman. The second son of a Normandy notary, he played a central role in the development of modern aesthetics, as did his elder brother Jacques Villon and his younger brother (Henri-Robert-)Marcel Duchamp. He came from an educated family and was an assiduous student at secondary school in Rouen; in ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

Estonian group of painters and sculptors active from 1923 to c. 1930. The group continued the progressive internationalist orientation of their predecessors in the Young Estonia movement and united a new generation of painters committed to Cubist experimentation. The group was founded in Tartu by ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1915, in Bassano del Grappa.

Sculptor.

Toni Fabris was a student at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. He creates abstract works, constructed according to a concept of space and emptiness that has its roots in Cubism. He also makes films about kinetic sculpture, and has executed a monumental sculpture for a school in Milan....

Article

Vojtěch Lahoda

Czech painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer and collector. After a short period at a business school and in an insurance office in Brno, he became a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1903). In 1904 he won the Academy’s first prize. At the end of the year he set out on a lengthy journey to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Italy. He became absorbed in the Old Masters, especially Rembrandt. His own style passed from Post-Impressionism to a more expressive dominance of colour. In ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany from 1920.

Born 1888; died 1932.

Sculptor, draughtsman, designer.

Constructivism.

Sándor Gergely studied in Germany. His sculpture, abstract in aim, was associated with a tempered Cubism. He exhibited for the first time in 1918 on the premises of the magazine ...

Article

Karel Srp

Czech sculptor and draughtsman. One of the outstanding Czech sculptors of the early 20th century, he had a considerable influence both during his lifetime and subsequently. He studied at the Central School of Ceramics at Bechyně from 1903 and then under Professor J. Drahoňovský at the School of Applied Arts in Prague (...

Article

Czechoslovak, 20th century, female.

Born 25 June 1922, in Ubislavice, near Nová Paka.

Sculptor.

Vera Januskova was a student at the school of decorative arts in Prague from 1942 to 1948. After a first period influenced by Cubist ideas of volume and construction, in around ...

Article

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine

French sculptor, collagist, printmaker and illustrator. He came from a family of coopers and c. 1899 joined the studio of a sculptor of building ornaments, practising direct carving on building sites and studying academic drawings in the evenings. In 1902 he settled in the Montmartre district of Paris, where in ...

Article

Alan G. Wilkinson

French sculptor of Russian birth active in the USA. Lipchitz grew up in Druskieniki. His father, a Jewish building contractor, opposed his son’s desire to become a sculptor, but his mother was sympathetic and arranged for him to go to Paris in 1909. He arrived with no formal academic training and studied briefly at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts before transferring to the Académie Julian. Mornings were spent drawing and modelling from life; during the rest of the day he visited museums. Lipchitz’s early nudes and portraits of ...

Article

Melissa McQuillan

Spanish painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker, decorative artist and writer, active in France. He dominated 20th-century European art and was central in the development of the image of the modern artist. Episodes of his life were recounted in intimate detail, his comments on art were published and his working methods recorded on film. Painting was his principal medium, but his sculptures, prints, theatre designs and ceramics all had an impact on their respective disciplines. Even artists not influenced by the style or appearance of his work had to come to terms with its implications....

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 26 April 1896, in Cesis.

Painter, sculptor, potter, designer.

Romans Suta initially worked in Riga with J. Maderniek and then took a job at the city's school of fine art. He introduced the Latvian public to Cubism.

Moscow (MMA)

Paris (Mus. National de Céramique Sèvres)...

Article

Christa Lichtenstern

French sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker of Belorussian birth. He spent his childhood in Smolensk in a circle of cultured and assimilated Jews. His father was a convert to the Orthodox Church, and his mother came from an immigrant family of Scottish shipwrights. While staying with his mother’s relatives in Sunderland, northern England, in ...