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Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Iranian scholar of Persian art. After graduating from the Dar al-Moallemin in Tehran in 1931, he worked at the court of Riza Pahlavi (r. 1925–41) until 1934, when he was sent to study art and archaeology in Europe. There, he studied at the Ecole du Louvre in Paris and under ...

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Stephen Hill

English archaeologist and architectural historian. The first woman to achieve a first-class honours in modern history at Oxford University, she travelled widely in Europe, Japan and especially the Middle East in the 1890s, achieving fluency in a number of European languages as well as in Persian, Turkish and Arabic. She developed an interest in archaeology and architecture that was reflected in an authoritative set of articles on the Early Byzantine churches of Syria and southern Turkey, based on her travels in ...

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H. I. R. Hinzler

He began his studies with Classics at Leiden University in 1926 but then specialized in Sanskrit and South and South-east Asian archaeology under J. Ph. Vogel and N. J. Krom. He concluded his studies in 1933 with a thesis on 9th-century Indo-Javanese bronzes. He was curator of the Kern Institute in Leiden (...

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. Educated in the Netherlands, he studied Dutch literature at Leiden University (1906) but then specialized in Sanskrit and Indian archaeology. He was appointed adjunct archaeologist of the Archaeological Survey in Batavia (now Jakarta) under N. J. Krom at the end of ...

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. The son of a theologian, he was supposed to study theology but felt more attracted to Asiatic languages and studied Sanskrit, Malay and Old Javanese at Leiden University from 1879 to 1883. In 1884 he completed a thesis on linguistics. In 1884 Brandes was appointed civil servant in Indonesian languages in Batavia (now Jakarta). Between ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

French art historian and archaeologist. He taught himself Sanskrit and Khmer while still at school and published his first article, on the early history of Cambodia, in 1904. He studied from 1911 at the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, becoming a research fellow in Indo-Chinese philology in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Austrian historian of Byzantine, Islamic and Indian art. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Vienna and Graz and in 1902 completed his doctorate at Graz under Josef Strzygowski and Wilhelm Gurlitt, a study of the paintings in a manuscript of Dioskurides’ ...

Article

French archaeologist and art historian. He studied in Paris at the Sorbonne, the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, the Institut d’Ethnologie and the Ecole du Louvre, and also at the Institut Français d’Amsterdam and the Institut Français de Berlin. His teachers included Sylvain Lévi, Alfred Foucher, ...

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. Educated in the Netherlands, he trained for the Civil Engineering Corps in Breda (1892–6) and left as an officer for the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) to design fortifications. As an accomplished painter he was interested in ancient monuments and became a member of the Borobudur Commission in ...

Article

French art historian and archaeologist. He became interested in the history of India and in Sanskrit literature while working at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and this led to his first publication, Lapidaires indiens. In 1898 he became Director of the new Mission Archéologique of Indochina in Saigon, later known as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. In the following years he travelled throughout Indochina, organizing an inventory of historical monuments, establishing a library and a museum for the archaeological mission at Saigon, which was later transferred to Hanoi, and creating the ...

Article

French art historian and archaeologist. He qualified with an arts degree in 1888 and began postgraduate Sanskrit and Indian studies in 1891 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne University. His primary interest was in Buddhist legend and tradition, and the relationship between India and the Western Classical world. In ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

French archaeologist and art historian, active in Iran. Godard qualified as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1910 became involved with the urban planning of Baghdad. At this time, he began to develop an interest in the archaeology and art of the Middle East. He visited Egypt and Syria and, in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of ...

Article

M. Yaldiz

German explorer, archaeologist and art historian. He started his Asian studies in 1876 and obtained a doctorate in 1881 from the Technische Universität, Munich. In the same year, on the recommendation of his teacher Ernst Kuhn, he became an assistant in the Museum für Völkerkunde (Museum of Ethnology) in Berlin, where in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In ...

Article

Austrian art historian, archaeologist and anthropologist. In 1923 he pioneered South-east Asian anthropology with the chapter ‘Südostasien’ in Georg Buschan’s Illustrierte Völkerkunde. He had also become interested by this time in South-east Asian art history and archaeology. During World War II he sought refuge at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He was co-founder of the East Indies Institute of America (later known as the South-east Asia Institute) and a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Royal Asiatic Society and the Royal Anthropological Institute, as well as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. His research embraced such themes as the conceptions of state and kingship in South-east Asia, and cultural contacts and cultural change, including prehistoric migration and contacts across trade routes. As an art historian Heine-Geldern provided valuable information on old Javanese bronzes, South-east Asian sword handles and the archaeology and art of Sumatra and Nias. His writings showed an ability to handle both grand themes and minutiae....

Article

Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the ...

Article

Archaeologist, collector and dealer of Armenian descent. He excavated in Iran at Sultanabad from 1903 and the medieval city of Rayy from c. 1907 and assembled an outstanding collection of Oriental art, especially Islamic and Persian. He exhibited Islamic ceramics in London in 1911 and works excavated under his supervision were shown in New York in ...

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. He studied law (1901–2) at Leiden University but switched to Classics (1902–6) and continued with Dutch archaeology (1906–8). Meanwhile he was invited to succeed J. L. A. Brandes, who had died in 1905, as head of the Commission for Archaeological Survey in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He thus had to specialize in Sanskrit and Old Javanese in order to study inscriptions. From ...