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Revised and updated by Margaret Barlow

African American sculptor. Her long career anticipated and included the period of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and early 1930s (see African American art, §I, 2). Born Meta Vaux Warrick, she studied at the Pennsylvania Museum and School for Industrial Art, Philadelphia, from ...

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Theresa Leininger-Miller

Resurgence in black culture, also called the New Negro Movement, which took place in the 1920s and early 1930s, primarily in Harlem, a neighborhood of the New York City borough of Manhattan, but also in major cities throughout the USA, such as Chicago, Detroit, St Louis, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Boston, Atlanta, and Washington, DC, as well as in the Caribbean and in Paris. Better known as a literary movement because of the publication of twenty-six novels, ten volumes of poetry, five Broadway plays and countless essays and short stories, the Harlem Renaissance (a term that historian John Hope Franklin coined in ...

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Gordon Campbell

American furniture-maker. His workshop in Newark (New Jersey) was active from 1836 to 1890. He specialized in furniture in the Renaissance Revival style (e.g. armchairs, 1868–70; New York, Met. and Brooklyn Mus.).

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Richard Longstreth

Urban plan for the newly created seat of the US Federal government, Washington, DC, designed by Pierre-Charles L’Enfant at the request of George Washington in 1791–2, which was audacious in its size, scope and purpose. Building a new federal city stemmed from the president’s realization that choosing any established center would fuel the fractious relations that existed between the states. Locating the city midway along the Atlantic seaboard was also a political balancing act, but, equally important, the site lay further west than any potential seaport. The site also seemed to afford the easiest access to Ohio River Valley. Washington envisioned a great city, like Paris, that would be the cultural and business, as well as the governmental, center—the prime launching point for settlement of the Trans-Appalachian frontier....

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Gordon Campbell

French cabinetmaker active in New York City. He made furniture in several French historical styles. Sixteenth-century French models inspired the Baroque cartouches, animal and human figures, flattened arches and roundels, while 18th-century Louis XVI prototypes gave rise to straight, turned legs, straight backs and gilt and ebonized surfaces. Many of these motifs can be seen in a cabinet built by Roux in the 1860s and now in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....

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Jennifer Wingate

American sculptor, active also in France. Scudder developed a lively style influenced by antique and Renaissance statuary as well as by the animated figurative work of Frederick William MacMonnies . The carefree spirit of her sculpture suited the tastes of wealthy Americans who ordered her bronzes for the grounds of their country estates, and her fountains helped garden sculpture achieve a new level of prestige. She had one of the most successful careers of any woman artist of the early 20th century....

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Mode of pictorial Illusionism in which images are rendered so realistically as to deceive the eye. Practiced in Europe since the Renaissance, trompe l’oeil (Fr.: “fool the eye”) representation enjoyed two phases of popularity in the United States: first, during the late 18th to early 19th century, when in Philadephia members of the Peale family, together with artists including drawing masters and cartographers, produced ...