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Gautam Vajracharya

Capital of Nepal, situated on the Bagmati River. According to legends recorded in Hindu and Buddhist texts, in ancient times the entire Kathmandu Valley was a lake—a story given credibility by the type of alluvial soil found in the valley. The city of Kathmandu appears to have developed out of two small towns that grew partly because of the fertility of the soil and partly because a principal trans-Himalayan trade route passed through them. The limits of the two towns are still vaguely remembered in the designated routes and areas for such traditional cultural activities as chariot festivals and processions of an image of a local divinity....

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Perween Hasan

Hill area some 8 km west of Comilla, Bangladesh. It was a centre of Buddhist culture and of extensive building activity in the 6th–13th centuries. Coins, inscriptions and other evidence provide the names of Hindu and Buddhist dynasties that ruled the region: the Khadgas, Devas, kings of Harikela, Chandras, Varmans and Senas. Among the forty-seven archaeological sites are the ruins of seven monasteries, five large shrines and a palace. The earliest dated site is the 8th-century Buddhist monastery and cruciform shrine of Salban Vihara....

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R. Soekmono

Hindu temple complex in southern Central Java. It is the largest and most important of a group of Shaivite and Buddhist temples (candi) on the plain of Prambanan near the village of that name, 17 km north-east of Yogyakarta. Candi Loro Jonggrang, popularly known as Candi Prambanan, is associated with an inscription with a date equivalent to ...

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Pagoda  

Frances Wood, Young-Ho Chung, Dennis Lishka and Richard John

Usually a type of free-standing tower. The word pagoda is of unknown etymology, but it is thought by some scholars to be derived from the Sanskrit bhagavat, ‘sacred’, or the name Bhagavati, as applied to Durga and other Hindu goddesses. Its earliest known occurrence is in Duarte Barbosa’s account of the Malabar coast of ...

Article

Sirpur  

Donald M. Stadtner

Site in Raipur District, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is noted for its Hindu and Buddhist monuments of the 7th century ad. The principal shrine is the Lakshmana Temple, a brick temple with a large sandstone sanctum doorway bearing a reclining image of Vishnu on the lintel and smaller images of his various incarnations (...