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Article

A. Gerhardt

Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated ...

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Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the ...

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Hannelore Hägele

He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl...

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Pedro Dias

Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his ...

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P. Gabriel Kleeb

Benedictine abbey and Marian pilgrimage site c. 35 km south-east of Zurich, in the canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The original abbey, on the site of the martyrdom of St Meinrad (ad 861), was founded in 934 by Eberhard, provost of Strasbourg Cathedral. The abbey church (consecrated 948) burnt down in ...

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António Filipe Pimentel

Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son ...

Article

Ivo Kořán

Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in ...

Article

Mario Schwarz

Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in ...

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Loyola  

Germán Ramello Asensio

Sanctuary complex at the birthplace of Ignatius Loyola near Azpeitia, Guipozcoa province, northern Spain. The Loyolas’ manor house (1387–1405), now known as the Santa Casa, was where Ignatius resolved to become a soldier of Christ, while recovering from wounds received at the siege of Pamplona (...

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Anna Bentkowska

Former Cistercian abbey near Wrocław in Silesia, south-west Poland, one of the largest Baroque abbeys in central Europe (main complex: 223×118 m), situated south of Lubiąż village on the west bank of the Odra (Ger. Oder), surrounded by defence walls and moats, fields and woods. It was formerly also a centre of music. The abbey’s present imposing appearance is the result of a remodelling in ...

Article

Mafra  

José Fernandes Pereira

Town, 40 km from Lisbon, Portugal, entirely dwarfed by its palace-convent. In 1717 John V of Portugal, fulfilling a vow made in 1711, determined to rebuild a friary at Mafra for the Franciscans of Arrábida as thanks to God for the birth of a male heir. However, rather than housing about 13 members of the Order, as originally intended, the project dramatically expanded as the King appointed a vast team of workers. At its head was the German architect known in Portugal as ...

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Gottfried Glassner

Benedictine abbey situated on a rocky ledge overlooking the River Danube in Lower Austria, halfway between Linz and Vienna. The Baroque pomp of the building is dramatically heightened by its romantic and picturesque setting. The abbey is the outcome of a creative partnership between the architect ...

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Ulrich Knapp

German architect. He served his apprenticeship with Christian Thumb, completing it in 1673. In 1674 he began to work as a mason under Johann Georg Kuen (1642–91) on the construction of the new monks’ choir at the Benedictine abbey church at Einsiedeln. In ...

Article

José María Peña and Liliana Herrera

Spanish architect, active in Argentina. In 1741 he joined the Franciscan Order in Buenos Aires. When he took his vows it was noted that he was a ‘mason–architect’, and he worked in this capacity in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Salta. From 1730 he designed the vaulting for S Francisco, Buenos Aires, following the plans of the original architect ...

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Christian F. Otto

Benedictine abbey, 16 km from Nördlingen, in the Swabian Alps, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was founded in 1095 by Graf Hartmann I von Dillingen. Its first church was built in the 12th century, but in 1695, to mark the 600th anniversary of the monastery, the façade and interior were remodelled in the Baroque style, although the tower, built in ...

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Christian F. Otto

Benedictine monastic complex founded in the 760s, situated 13 km south-east of Memmingen in Bavarian Swabia, Germany. The first major buildings of the monastery were completed under Abbot Rupert I (1104–45). In the 12th century and in the 13th the monastery had to be rebuilt after damage by fire, and it was again rebuilt during the 16th century. The first printing press in a German monastery was established at Ottobeuren in ...

Article

Stephen Brindle

Carthusian monastery c. 22 km south-east of Segovia in the province of Madrid. It was the first Carthusian monastery in Spain, founded c. 1390 by John I of Castile (reg 1379–90) and generously endowed by him and his son Henry III (reg 1390–1406). Work began on the cells and other residential areas ...

Article

German architect and administrator, active in Denmark. He was officially attached to the Danish court from 1687 and was sent by King Christian V (reg 1670–99) on a study trip to Italy and France in 1698 to perfect his knowledge of architecture, with the promise of being appointed Director of Works on his return. He was appointed to the position in ...

Article

Richard Bösel

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s ...

Article

Massimiliano David

Massimiliano David

Situated at the end of the Esquiline Hill and formerly known as S Maria ad Praesepem, S Maria Maggiore was traditionally founded by Pope Liberius (reg 352–66) and financed by Johannes, a rich citizen, after a miraculous summer snowfall. It is more likely, however, that it was founded in the early 5th century by Sixtus III, whose name appears in the mosaics of the triumphal arch in front of the apse. The church had a nave and aisles, the nave more than twice as wide as the aisles, and there was a single apse. Monolithic Ionic columns supporting a continuous entablature divided the nave from the aisles; above these, clerestory windows corresponded to the intercolumniations below. The windows were flanked by Corinthian pilasters aligned over the Ionic columns of the colonnade, and these were inset with a double tier of stucco colonnettes with fluting that spiralled right and left. Beneath each window was an aedicule encasing a mosaic panel....