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Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

American historian of Iranian art. While studying mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, Ackerman met and eventually married Arthur Upham Pope, with whom she had taken courses in philosophy and aesthetics. In 1926 she and Pope organized the first ever exhibition of Persian art at the Pennsylvania Museum and helped create the First International Congress of Oriental Art. In ...

Article

Jennifer Wingate

American critic and author. Adams was a vocal proponent of American sculpture during the last decades of civic sculpture’s golden age. She expressed her views on the state of the field in two significant publications, The Spirit of American Sculpture (1923; reissued in 1929...

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Isabel L. Taube

Late 19th-century movement in the arts and literature characterized by the pursuit and veneration of beauty and the fostering of close relationships among the fine and applied arts. According to its major proponents, beauty was found in imaginative creations that harmonized colours, forms, and patterns derived from Western and non-Western cultures as well as motifs from nature. The ...

Article

Leland M. Roth

American architect, urban planner and writer. Atterbury studied at Yale University, New Haven, CT, and travelled in Europe. He studied architecture at Columbia University, New York and worked in the office of McKim, Mead & White before completing his architecture studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Atterbury’s early work consisted of suburban and weekend houses for wealthy industrialists, such as the Henry W. de Forest House (...

Article

Scottish architect, designer and writer. Trained as an architect, he moved to Liverpool, Lancs, in 1856 and set up an architectural practice with his brother William James Audsley (b 1833) in 1863. With him he wrote Handbook of Christian Symbolism (1865), and together they designed a number of buildings in and around Liverpool, among them the Welsh Presbyterian Church, Prince’s Road, Toxteth (...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

American muralist, activist and teacher. Born to Mexican–American parents, Baca is recognized as one of the leading muralists in the USA. She was involved from a young age in activism, including the Chicano Movement, the antiwar protest and Women’s Liberation. She studied art at California State University, Northridge, where she received Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. Baca started teaching art in ...

Article

Kristin E. Larsen

American writer and educator. She was an advocate for modern housing design and early federal housing programs. Born into an affluent family, Bauer briefly sought college training in architecture but attained the majority of her architecture and housing policy skills in the field. During a trip to Europe in ...

Article

Leland M. Roth

Daughter of the influential Presbyterian minister, Lyman Beecher (1775–1863), she was one of eight children. The education of women was her mission; she focused on making them better writers, speakers, but most especially, more efficient household managers and homemakers. Her books included works on improving domestic design. In ...

Article

Jack Quinan

American architect and writer. Benjamin was one of the most influential architect–writers of the first half of the 19th century in the USA and was trained as a housewright in rural Connecticut between 1787 and 1794. Two of his earliest commissions, the carving of Ionic capitals (...

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Private lessons in painting led Benjamin to illustrate many of his writings on art and travel. After graduating from Williams College, Williamstown, MA, in 1859 he served as assistant librarian in the New York State Library. He wrote his first book on art, What Is Art or Art Theories and Methods Concisely Stated...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 February 1837, in Argos, Greece; died 1914, in Burlington (Vermont).

Painter, draughtsman, writer.

Samuel Green Wheeler's early work was inspired by great natural spectacles. Later, he came under the guidance of Carlo Brindesi, an Italian painter based in Constantinople (now Istanbul). Benjamin did drawings for the ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 May 1865, in Chillicothe (Ohio).

Draughtsman, decorative designer, writer.

John Bennett studied at the Art Students League in New York and at the Cincinnati Academy. He wrote and illustrated The Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo (published 1928...

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

American art historian, critic, and connoisseur. Berenson was perhaps the single most influential art historian in the USA for much of the 20th century. As the leading scholar and authority on Italian Renaissance art, his opinion greatly influenced American art museums and collectors, whom he guided in the purchase of many important works of art. His pupils and disciples became the curators of many of the world’s great museums. His dealings with art galleries also made him a highly controversial figure....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 15 December 1848, in Brooklyn (New York City); died 12 October 1936, in New York.

Painter, mosaic designer, writer. Allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, decorative schemes, genre scenes. Murals.

Edwin Howland Blashfield studied in Paris under Léon Bonnat (1867-1869, 1875-1880), and received guidance from Jean-Léon Gérôme and Henri-Michel-Antoine Chapu. He studied the decorations of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Jean-Paul Laurens and Paul Baudry in the Panthéon in Paris. During a trip to Englandin 1887, Blashfield associated with Anglo-American artists Edwin Austin Abbey, John Singer Sargent, Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Frederic Leighton. He returned to the USA in 1881. He later travelled to Italy to see frescoes, and also visited Switzerland, Germany and Belgium. Blashfield was President of the National Academy of Design....

Article

Gretchen G. Fox

American financier, collector, museum official and philanthropist of German birth. He entered banking in Germany and immigrated to New York as a young man, becoming a partner in 1893 in Lazard Frères. He retired in 1925 to devote his time to art collecting and philanthropy, favouring causes connected with the arts, medicine and Jewish social services. His wife ...

Article

Aldona Jonaitis

American anthropologist and art historian of German birth. Trained as a physical scientist at the University of Kiel, he became interested in anthropology soon after receiving his doctorate in 1881. He immigrated to the USA in 1888 and became curator of ethnology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York in ...

Article

Susanne Anderson-Riedel

American art historian. Boime, a leading social art historian in the 20th century, received his education at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) (BA in Art History, 1961) and Columbia University (MA 1963; PhD 1968). He taught at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook (...

Article

Elizabeth Meredith Dowling

American architect, preservationist, author, and editor. His wealthy patrician family provided the opportunity for a fine education and connections to future clients. In 1906 he received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Columbia University. His education continued in Rome at the American Academy through receipt of the McKim Fellowship in Architecture in ...

Article

Raymond Vézina

Canadian architect, painter, sculptor, writer and teacher. He studied law in Montreal (1848–50), also attending classes under the Quebec painter Théophile Hamel until 1851. In 1852 Bourassa went to Italy, staying there for three years. Inspired by Victor Cousin’s treatise Du vrai, du beau, du bien...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1 August 1866, in Oberlin (Ohio); died 1946.

Stage designer, architect, author, illustrator.

Claude Fayette Bragdon is above all remembered as an architect. He first worked as a stage designer in 1919 on Walter Hampden's travelling production of Hamlet. He designed fourteen other productions for Hampden between ...