Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France....
Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.
The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....
American, 20th century, female.
Active in France.
Born 1942, in Houston.
Sculptor, ceramicist, pastellist, jeweller. Monuments.
Mary Louise Gallaway has lived and worked in France since 1971. She received a master's degree in art from the University of Paris in 1988. She studied ceramics in Japan, under Matsatsugu Hitomi, and engraving at the Pratt Graphic Art School, New York. She runs the École d'Arts Plastiques in Suresnes near Paris. In ...
American and Native American (Pueblo), 20th century, male.
Born in 1969 in New Mexico.
Ceramicist. Fashion designer and furnishings designer, jewelry-maker.
Virgil Ortiz is a multi-talented Pueblo artist who began working as a potter and has since moved into fashion, furnishings design, and jewelry-making, creating pieces of striking wit and sophistication. He comes from Cochiti Pueblo, New Mexico, where he learned how to make pots from his mother Seferina Ortiz, beginning at age 6. Aware of the strong artistic legacy that he inherited from his Pueblo ancestors, he contributed to the rebirth, then reinvention, of traditional Cochiti Pueblo pottery. Experimenting with half-human, half-animal shapes, Ortiz has developed an original style, stretching the boundaries of traditional craft through the import of contemporary themes. He featured in ...
Native American (Warm Springs, Wasco and Yakima), 20th–21st century, female.
Born 1943, in Oregon.
Ceramicist, glass artist, mask-maker, jewellery artist, printmaker, sculptor. Public art.
‘Giving voice to my ancestors’ is a central concern of the Pacific Northwest and Oregon-based artist Lillian Pitt. Much of the work she creates in a variety of media (ceramics, glass, bronze, and other materials) contains a strong awareness of the deep histories of her peoples and their 12,000-year existence in the Columbia River Basin in Oregon. Born and raised at Warm Springs Indian Reservation near Madras, Oregon, she directly descends from the three tribal peoples based there after a historic treaty removed them from their homelands along the Columbia River....
American, 20th century, male.
Born 1924, in Bald Knob (Arkansas).
Painter, sculptor (including bronze), ceramicist, jeweller. Religious subjects, figures, animals. Murals, designs for stained glass, mosaics.
Starting in 1944, Carroll Harris Simms studied at Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia, the University of Toledo, and the Toledo Museum School of Art. He was the first African-American to graduate from the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. He went on to study at the Slade School of Art of the University of London, the Royal College of Art, London, the Swedish Institute, Stockholm, and the Institute of African Studies of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. From ...