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Timothy Ostler

Portuguese architect, sculptor and painter, active in Africa. His childhood was spent in Mozambique and its offshore islands. From the age of 14 he was educated in Johannesburg, first at Maritz Brothers’ School and then at the University of the Witwatersrand School of Architecture, from which he graduated in ...


Togolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 12 October 1956, in Lomé.

Painter, sculptor.

Jimi Hope is a self-taught artist. He studied architecture at the Da Silva Institute in Lomé, but then turned to painting, sculpture and song. He fills his paintings with African faces.

Persin, Patrick-Gilles...


Congolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 27 August 1948, in Kimbembele Ihunga (now in Democratic Republic of Congo).

Sculptor. Architectural views.

Bodys Isek Kingelez is self-taught. He lives and works in Kinshasa. After working on the restoration of traditional masks, Kingelez launched out into making maquettes in paper, cardboard, plastic or adhesive, inspired by the colonial architecture of the 1930s and 1950s. He makes meticulous, perfectly designed maquettes of imaginary furniture from pieces of recycled paper and cardboard. Each of his extraordinary creations, decorated with symbols, flags or signs, is accompanied by a text with a long descriptive commentary....


Congolese, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Brazzaville.

Sculptor. Scenes with figures. Monuments.

Bernard Mouanga-N'Kodia was a pupil of Louis Arnaud, Fançois Boucher and Jacques Choquin at the École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts et de l'Architecture in Marseilles. He executed the Old Mint monument in Brazzaville in the Congo as well as a memorial after the UTA DC10 crash in the Tenere desert in ...


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Reviser Kristina Borrman

Nigerian painter, sculptor, architect, and set designer. Nwoko’s works of art and architecture have been understood as exhibiting the tensions between modernism and indigenous design. Nwoko’s own published discussions of the political history of Nigeria and his recommendations for improvements in education, medicine, environmental conservation, and mechanical engineering have inspired art histories that describe him as not only an artist–architect but as an advocate for social reform....


Eve D’Ambra

Roman villa in Libya. The élite of the great city of Leptis Magna built villas along the Tripolitanian coast, and the Villa Sileen, near the village of Khums(Qums) is an excellent example of this type of domestic architecture in North Africa. Discovered in 1974, the villa was inhabited in the 2nd century ...


In its most general sense, spolia (pl., from Lat. spolium: ‘plunder’) denotes all artifacts re-employed in secondary contexts, from building blocks reused in a wall to pagan gems mounted on a Christian reliquary. It is a matter of debate whether this broad application of the term is justified, or whether it should be restricted to the relatively small subset of reused objects that were taken or ‘stripped’ (like spoils) from their original context, rather than found, purchased, inherited or otherwise acquired by non-violent means. It is likewise debated when the use of spolia should be considered meaningful, if at all. Arnold Esch defined five possible motives for using spolia: convenience, profanation, Christianization, political legitimation and aesthetic attraction. Michael Greenhalgh has argued for reducing the motives to three (at least with regard to marble): pragmatism, aesthetics and ideology; while Finbarr Barry Flood cautioned against reductive interpretations generated by any taxonomy, insisting that reused objects are mutable in meaning and capable of multiple interpretations during their life cycle....


South African, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 26 December 1862, in Driebergen, Holland; died 30 July 1945, in Pretoria.

Sculptor (bronze, marble, and wood), painter.

Anton van Wouw established the Western realist sculptural tradition in South Africa. He received initial training from Joseph Graven and worked for a firm of decorative plasterers in Rotterdam. In the evenings he studied at the Rotterdam Academy of Art. He settled in Pretoria on ...