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Article

Mark H. Sandler

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

Japanese calligrapher. Together with Maki Ryōko and Nukina Kaioku, he was one of the Bakumatsu no Sanpitsu (‘Three Brushes of the late Edo period’). His powerful brushwork, known as the Beian ryū (Beian school or style), continued to be much admired into the Meiji period (...

Article

Beisen  

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Born 1852; died 1906.

Painter.

Beisen was a pupil of Suzuki Hyakumen. Known mainly as an illustrator, he painted figures and landscapes.

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a leading figure in the stele studies (...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about ...

Article

Frank L. Chance

Japanese painter and book designer (see fig.). He was the son of the poet Tani Rokkoku (1729–1809). As his father and grandfather were retainers of the Tayasu family, descended from the eighth Tokugawa shogun, Bunchō inherited samurai status and received a small stipend to meet the responsibilities this entailed. In his youth he began studying the painting techniques of the ...

Article

Ralph Croizier

Chinese painter and calligrapher . As a leading figure in the Shanghai school during the early 20th century, he was largely responsible for rejuvenating the genre of bird-and-flower painting by introducing an expressive, individualistic style more generally associated with literati painting. He began his artistic career with the traditional study of literature and ancient inscriptions before moving to calligraphy (...

Article

Hong Sŏn-p’yo

Korean calligrapher and painter of the late Chosŏn period (1392–1910). Although he was a descendant of a distinguished family, because he was born out of wedlock his official post remained that of a civil servant. Along with fellow enthusiasts of pukhak (‘Northern [i.e. Chinese] learning’) such as Pak Chi-wŏn and Hong Tae-yong (...

Article

Choki  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active 1760-1800.

Painter, print artist. Portraits, genre scenes.

Choki was active in Edo (Tokyo) from 1773 to 1811. He was a pupil of Toriyama Sekien and illustrated his master’s books. His portraits, especially of women, are distinguished by the elegance of their drawing and their rich, harmonious colouring. An ukiyo-e artist, he could render a snowfall or a sultry, starlit night with equal lyricism: the influence of Sharaku and Haronubu, among others, can be discerned in his work. He is particularly famous for his portraits of beautiful women in bust form, a new genre in about ...

Article

Korean calligrapher, painter, scholar and poet. He was also a lay Buddhist. Born into a family related by marriage to the imperial household, from an early age he showed his talent for calligraphy, studying with Pak Che-ga. Kim had an extremely successful civil service career before being exiled in ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born in Sukabumi, Indonesia.

Engraver, illustrator, lithographer.

A lithographer and etcher known for her illustrations of children's books and her posters, Rie Cramer also made theatrical costumes for the theatre directed by Edouard Verkade, whom she married.

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, epigrapher and collector . Born into a rich and cultured merchant family, he entered the district school at 16 and at 17 began to study seal script (zhuanshu) under Chen Huan (1786–1863). He received his jinshi degree in 1868 and became a scholar at the Hanlin Academy in Beijing, followed by two years at the Suzhou Provincial Printing Office. In succeeding years, he distinguished himself as an army officer, diplomat and civil servant. He became Governor of Guangdong Province in ...

Article

Donald A. Rosenthal

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter ...

Article

Frederick Baekeland

Japanese calligrapher. Gadō was one of the outstanding Meiji-period (1868–1912) kana (Japanese phonetic script) calligraphers. Having lost his father, a martial arts instructor, when he was a youth, he went to Tokyo, working first for a fish wholesaler and then as a clerk in the Ministry of Finance. He spent all his spare time studying calligraphy and, apart from some later training with Naruse Taiiki (...

Article

Gekko  

Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1859; died 1920.

Painter.

Gekko was a self-taught painter from Tokyo who is known as a genre painter and illustrator. He also taught himself the art of woodblock printing.

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. Of later Japanese artists in the Zenga (‘Zen painting’; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vii)) tradition, he is perhaps the best-known in the Western world.

Born to a farming family, he became a monk at the age of ten at Seitaiji in Mino Province and at 19 began studies with the outstanding Zen teacher ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)...

Article

Gyokuso  

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Activec.1830.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

Gyokuso was an illustrator from Osaka.

Article

Korean prince regent, calligrapher and painter . When his second son acceded to the throne in 1863 as King Kojong (reg 1863–1907) he became Taewŏngun (‘Prince regent’). He excelled in calligraphy and ink paintings of orchids. His early work shows the influence of Kim Chŏng-hŭi...

Article

Hanzan  

Japanese, 19th century, male.

Active in Osakac.1850-1870.

Died c. 1880.

Illustrator.

San Francisco (FAM): Flowering Pink Nad Otsu Picture of Benkei with Bell (1861, coloured woodcut);Textile Patterns with Flowers and Rabbits (1867, coloured woodcut);Three Children (1867...