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Alexandra Skliar-Piguet

French priest, philosopher and writer. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1693, studied theology in Paris, then philosophy at the Collège de Clermont, and he was ordained a priest in 1706. He was a great scholar, who knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew; he devoted himself to philosophical research and poetry, at the same time teaching for the Society of Jesus in numerous institutions of learning in France. A staunch Cartesian, Père André inevitably incurred the hostility of the Society, which was wedded to Scholastic doctrines and Aristotelian philosophy. His innovative philosophical opinions and his suspect theology caused him to suffer various penalties, including imprisonment (...

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Valerie Mainz

(b Castelnau-de-Brassac, Tarn, 3 or 4 May 1736; d Paris, 28 March 1806). French writer. He was the son of a lawyer; having been a pupil of the Jesuits, he joined that Order in 1752 but was never ordained priest. He became in his turn a teacher at Jesuit colleges, first at Albi and then at Tournon. When in ...

Article

French art historian and writer. He began as a captain in the service of Duke Christian Ludwig of Mecklenburg (d 1756). He mastered numerous languages and travelled in Germany, Spain, Portugal and Italy. Living the life of an adventurer, he was frequently in debt, for which he was imprisoned in ...

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Petra Schniewind-Michel

German art scholar and collector. At school in Lübeck he became acquainted with the ideas of Leibniz and Christian Wolff; from 1724 he studied law and literature in Leipzig. There he developed an interest in the Enlightenment thinking of Johann Christoph Gottsched and in art, particularly the many private collections. In ...

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Christopher Gilbert

German cabinetmaker. By 1770 he was established as a master cabinetmaker in Leipzig. An important early patron was the art dealer Karl Christian Heinrich Rost (1742–98), who commissioned furniture closely based on French and English models. In 1788 Hoffman obtained a loan to extend his business in Leipzig and a subsidiary workshop at Eilenburg; his total workforce was 16 tradesmen. In ...

Article

Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

German architect, teacher, theorist and landscape designer. He was first taught mathematics and the rudiments of architecture by his uncle, Christian Friedrich Krubsacius (d 1746), a lieutenant-colonel in the engineers’ corps. He received further training from Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. In ...

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Franco Bernabei

Italian antiquary and art historian. He studied in Jesuit schools in Fermo and later in Rome, where he entered the Order of St Ignatius. His education was mainly classical, although it also included philosophy and mathematics. While in Rome he taught classical literature in Jesuit schools, concurrently absorbing the Neo-classical theories of Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Anton Raphael Mengs. When the Jesuit Order was suppressed in ...

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David Watkin

French Jesuit priest, diplomat and writer. Laugier is celebrated in the history of 18th-century taste as the most influential of those who advocated a return to first principles in architecture. In his Essai sur l’architecture (1753) he argued that architects should always have before them the primitive hut as a reminder of the origins of architecture. This programme for a new architecture of radical simplicity was welcomed by those anxious to rid architecture of Baroque ornament, as well as by the supporters of Rousseau’s plea for a return to nature. The ...

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Valeria Farinati

Italian architectural theorist, teacher and writer. He was one of the most original Italian theorists of the 18th century, his ideas on functionalism later being viewed as precursors of Modernist principles. He came from a family who had close connections with the Venetian Arsenal and military engineering. After completing his initial studies at the monastery of S Francesco della Vigna, Venice, in ...

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Janet Southorn

Italian art historian. He became a member of the Carmelite order and took up residence at the Bolognese convent of S Martino, where he devoted himself to a life of study. A natural sympathy for art had led him first to an admiration for painting and later to an appreciation of drawings, which he collected, together with prints and books. Art also provided him with his principal subject for research and his dedicated studies earned him honorary membership of the Bolognese Accademia Clementina....

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Peter Boutourline Young

Italian scientist, philosopher, writer and architect. His early education took place in Milan, Monza, Rome and Naples between 1756 and 1765. Having joined the Barnabite order in 1756, he became a member of the regular clergy of S Paolo, Milan. In 1766 he was appointed professor-in-ordinary of mathematics at the Università di S Alessandro in Milan, where he also taught chemistry, mineralogy and canon law, and in ...

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Richard Bösel

Italian painter, architect and stage designer. He was a brilliant quadratura painter, whose most celebrated works, such as the decoration of the church of S Ignazio in Rome, unite painting, architecture and sculpture in effects of overwhelming illusionism and are among the high-points of Baroque church art. He was a Jesuit lay brother and produced his most significant work for the Society of Jesus. This affiliation was fundamental to his conception of art and to his heightened awareness of the artist’s role as instrumental in proclaiming the faith and stimulating religious fervour. The methods he used were those of Counter-Reformation rhetoric, as represented in Ignatius Loyola’s ...