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Philip Cooper

American sculptor, film maker and writer. Cornell studied from 1917 to 1921 at Phillips Academy in Andover, MA. After leaving the Academy he took a job as a textile salesman for the William Whitman Company in New York, which he retained until 1931. During this time his interest in the arts developed greatly. Through art reviews and exhibitions he became acquainted with late 19th-century and contemporary art; he particularly admired the work of ...

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American painter and sculptor of Italian birth. He studied economics at the Università degli Studi, Pavia, and in 1934 moved to the USA, where he attended the New School for Social Research and the Art Students’ League in New York. His first one-man shows were in New York in ...

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Malcolm Gee

German painter, printmaker, and sculptor, naturalized American in 1948 and French in 1958. He was a major contributor to the theory and practice of Surrealism (see Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924). His work challenged and disrupted what he considered to be repressive aspects of European culture, in particular Christian doctrine, conventional morality, and the aesthetic codes of Western academic art. Until the mid-1920s he was little known outside a small circle of artists and writers in Cologne and Paris, but he became increasingly successful from ...

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Robert Saltonstall Mattison

American sculptor, painter, and photographer. Throughout his career he was devoted to Surrealist ideas. He had no formal training, but at schools in New York, Colorado, and California he graduated in biology and chemistry, which may have influenced his interest in primal origins and the biomorphic shapes in his sculptures and paintings. He worked briefly as a commercial photographer in New York around ...

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Ronald Alley

Canadian painter and sculptor. From an early age he drew extensively and painted landscapes from nature. From 1939 to 1941 he studied at Montreal Polytechnic while also taking a correspondence course in architecture. He temporarily abandoned painting in 1941, but from 1943 to 1945 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal and at the Ecole du Meuble, where he spent most of his time. He and like-minded painters, later known as ...

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Celia Rabinovitch

American painter, printmaker, sculptor, stage designer and writer of Swiss birth. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva (1920) and at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence (1927). From this training he drew upon two dominant influences, combining a predilection for the illusionistic deep space and the clear vibrant colour of the Italian tradition with the fantastic narratives explored by earlier Swiss artists such as Johann Heinrich Füseli, Ferdinand Hodler, Urs Graf and Niklaus Manuel Deutsch....

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American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1946, in Boston (Massachusetts).

Sculptor, installation artist.

Sandy Skoglund creates room-size installations with a Surrealistic dreamlike quality, created over months and painted in bright colours, such as pink for floors and yellow for walls. They are furnished with familiar and repeating objects modelled from clay and painted, such as coat hangers, spoons, chewing gum, foxes, squirrels or cats. When the installation is finished, Skoglund photographs it with people in it, and the photograph is considered the end result of her work. She describes her work as 'a Frankensteinian model where the human beings have created a world that is out of control and turns on them'. She taught at the University of Hartford Art School in Connecticut (...

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Whitney Chadwick and Amy Lyford

American painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer, and writer. She studied at the school of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1932 before moving to New York, where she saw the exhibition Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936–7; New York, MOMA) and was inspired to become a painter. After meeting ...