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Francis Summers

Pakistani conceptual artist, sculptor, painter, writer and curator, active in England. He graduated in civil engineering from the University of Karachi in 1962 and moved to London in 1964. He began working as an artist without any formal training, producing sculptures influenced by Minimalism and by his engineering experience; the four-part ...

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Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Palestinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1919.

Born 1892, in Jaffa; died October 1969, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, writer. Portraits, landscapes, animals.

In 1919 Joseph Constant moved to Paris, where he took part in the Salon des Artistes Indépendants from 1928 to 1931...

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French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 2 October 1951, in Hanoi.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor (including bronze), engraver, poet. Artists' books.

Lettrism.

Born in North Vietnam, Albert Dupont came to France at an early age. He began to practise engraving and worked on collector's editions ...

Article

Robert J. Belton

Canadian sculptor, film maker, costume designer, playwright and poet of Romanian birth. His formal art training began in 1945 but in 1950 he emigrated to Israel. From 1953 he studied at the Institute of Painting and Sculpture in Tel Aviv. Etrog’s first one-man exhibition took place in ...

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Bent Nielsen

Chinese painter, poet, seal-carver and government official . Like many of his literati colleagues, he remained loyal to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) after it had been overthrown by the Manchus and withdrew from office to live as a Buddhist recluse. He led a life of relative poverty, occasionally enjoying the patronage of the nobility, which allowed him to pursue a variety of scholarly activities. In his paintings he concentrated on landscapes (...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, ...

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Turkish sculptor and writer. After completing his education in 1940, he taught for one year and then began his military service. In 1944 he entered the sculpture department of the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul, where he was a student of Rudolf Belling. From 1948 to 1950...

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Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in the USA.

Born 6 January 1883, in Bécharré; died 10 April 1931, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, poet. Figures, portraits.

Symbolism.

Together with his family, Khalil Gibran left the Lebanon at the age of 12, and settled in Boston, where his artistic talent brought him to the attention of well-known writers and artists. He had to return to the Lebanon in ...

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Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1956, in Hong Kong.

Educator, curator, writer, sculptor, painter.

Ho received a B.F.A. from the University of Saskatchewan in 1980 and an M.F.A. from the University of California, Davis, in 1983. After returning to Hong Kong, Ho was the exhibition director of the Hong Kong Arts Centre ...

Article

Dai Kui  

Weihe Chen

Chinese sculptor, painter and philosopher. At an early age he studied with the famous Confucian scholar Fan Xuan, however, despite being influenced by Confucianism, he never took up an official position, instead he adopted a policy of withdrawing from society, admiring nature and advocating a simple way of life. He was a prolific author and developed the Confucian monastic tradition of ...

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Pandit Chanrochanakit

Thai sculptor, installation artist, teacher and curator. He graduated from Silpakorn University, Bangkok in 1989 and went to study at the Sydney College of the Arts where he received a masters degree in visual arts in 1993. Kunavichayanont’s early works focused on Buddhism and the contemplation of ephemeral stages of life, creating works such as ...

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Midori Yamamura

Japanese painter, sculptor, poet, writer, printmaker, installation, and performance artist, active also in the USA.

Growing up under Japan’s World War II totalitarian regime, Kusama believed art could help her nurture a more humane worldview. She began taking private art lessons at the age of 13. Between ...

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Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese painter and poet. His family moved to Jiading, now part of Shanghai, where he spent most of his life. Li received his juren degree in 1606 and twice attempted the higher examinations, failing the first and arriving late for the second, which disqualified him. Having the means, he chose to abandon pursuit of a government career to lead a cultured life of leisure. He built a house and garden in Nanxiang, near Jiading, called Tan yuan (Sandalwood Garden) after the sandalwood trees that grew there, using the garden’s name thereafter as one of his ...

Article

Mick Hartney

South Korean video artist, performance artist, musician, sculptor, film maker, writer, and teacher, active in Germany and the USA (see fig.). From 1952 to 1956 he studied music and aesthetics at the University of Tokyo. In 1956 he moved to the Federal Republic of Germany: he studied music at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich, and worked with the composer ...

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Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel

The final decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century witnessed an increasing propensity for artists to incorporate aspects of science in their own art. In many fields of scientific research—including the cloning of mammals, the genetic modification of crops, the creation of bioengineered organs and tissues, advances in nanotechnology and robotics, experimental research in how the human mind works and the study of artificial intelligence—the frontiers of knowledge pushed outward at an accelerated pace. In the spirit of creative inquiry, or in order to critique the goals and outcomes of scientific experimentation and application, artists regularly borrowed subjects, tools and approaches from science as a means to the production of art (...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from ...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese poet, seal-carver and doctor. He was born into a medical family; his father, Hashimoto Teijun, a famous doctor, had died young, and Shikin was brought up by one of Teijun’s pupils, Usui Itsuō. In his youth he studied in Kyoto, but he later succeeded to the family medical tradition in Osaka. He studied Confucianism under Suga Kankoku (...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Chinese Zen monk, seal-carver, calligrapher, poet and Musician, active in Japan. He left his family at the age of seven and entered the Buddhist order, first training in Jiangxi Province and eventually in Hangzhou. In 1677 he emigrated to Japan, at the invitation of the monk Chin’i Dōryō of Kōfukuji, an Obaku-sect Zen temple in Nagasaki. He took up missionary work but found himself at odds with Ōbaku monks and for a short time was held in temple confinement. In ...