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Christian Lenz

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and teacher. He was one of the most important German painters of the 20th century. He was initially influenced by traditional styles, but during World War I he rejected perspective and classical proportion in favour of a more expressive objective art. He was persecuted by the Nazis in the 1930s but continued to work, painting his celebrated secular triptychs in the late 1930s and the 1940s....


Iain Boyd Whyte

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 1880; died 1966.

Architect, painter.

Die Brücke group.

Fritz Bleyl was an architecture student at the Dresden technical high school. He met Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, together with whom he founded The Bridge ( Die Brücke...


Paul Vogt and Ita Heinze-Greenberg

International movement in art and architecture, which flourished between c. 1905 and c. 1920, especially in Germany. It also extended to literature, music, dance and theatre. The term was originally applied more widely to various avant-garde movements: for example it was adopted as an alternative to the use of ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Ghent.

Painter. Landscapes.

A self-taught painter, De Gezelle is an architect. He has developed from naive Expressionism to a more direct expression from nature.


German, 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1883, in Döbeln (Saxony); died 1970, in Radolfzell.

Painter, engraver.

Die Brücke group.

Erich Heckel studied architecture at the technical university in Dresden in 1904-1905; his fellow students included Kirchner, Fritz Bleyl and Karl Schmitt-Rottluf. As a group they were passionate about the ferment of artistic expression resulting from the Munich Jugenstil movement, which would later come to be regarded as one of the wellsprings of 20th century art. Heckel settled in Berlin on his return from World War I, having served in the medical corps in Belgium for the duration. In 1937, the Nazis confiscated 729 of his canvases, declaring his work 'degenerate'. During World War II, his studio was destroyed in a bombardment in 1944, and he then settled in Hemmenhofen. After the war, he was appointed professor at the academy of arts in Karlsruhe from either 1945 or 1949 to 1954....


American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver.

John Himmelfarb is an architecture graduate from Harvard University. He is an exponent of Abstract Expressionism whose development of line has been described as 'dramatic'. His often calligraphic drawings and paintings spring from jazz rhythms or an allusive imagery. Himmelfarb is best known for the gigantism of his 'works in progress' executed in full view of the public, much in the way of a performance. He has benefited from grants from the National Education Association and the Pollock-Krasner Foundation. He has shown his works in solo exhibitions mostly in the Midwest but also at the University of Connecticut, Fairfield, and at the Centre for Contemporary Art, Christchurch, New Zealand....


Czechoslovak, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Belgium.

Born 2 July 1949, in Ostrava.

Painter. Scenes with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views.

Scarlet Nikolska was the pupil of the Czech Expressionist painter Karel Soucek at the academy of fine arts in Prague. In her early years, Scarlet Nikolska's paintings drew on her memories of Prague, using warm yet slightly shadowy tones to depict silhouettes or faces emerging from the fog, the overall ambiance creating a sense of melancholic resignation. Then, following a trip to Brazil, her palette became lighter and brighter and she allowed herself to experiment with audacious and occasionally slightly disconcerting colour ranges. Upon her return to Czechoslovakia, by now a country that had gone through a period of great political upheaval, Scarlet Nikolska's inspiration seemed to be rekindled. Her compositions found a certain depth and at the same time an easiness and deftness of touch. She has been participating in group exhibitions since ...


Lucius Grisebach

German painter and printmaker. He was apprenticed as a decorator in Zwickau from 1896 to 1900, when he moved to Dresden to enrol at the Kunstgewerbeschule, where he met the architect Wilhelm Kreis and the painter Otto Gussmann (1869–1926) and obtained decorative commissions. He continued his studies from ...


Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 2 July 1953, in Ronse, near Renaix.


In 1953 Jean-Pol Soudan took architecture lessons at the art academies in Tournai, Brussels, Lille and London. During his Expressionist period he painted the Flemish Ardennes and the sea. The paintings from his Lyrical Abstract period contain esoteric signs of different origins, astrological symbols as in all works of this genre, Egyptian, Aztec signs and so on. He has spoken of an 'austral', 'cosmic' vision....


Polish writer, art theorist, painter and photographer . He was the son of the architect, painter and critic Stanisław Witkiewicz (1851–1915), creator of the ‘Zakopane style’ ( see Poland, Republic of, §II, 3 ). He spent his childhood in Zakopane in the Tatra Mountains and was educated at his family home, a place frequented by artists and intellectuals, and also through his many travels to Eastern and Western Europe. From his wide acquaintance with contemporary art, he was particularly impressed by the paintings of Arnold Böcklin. Witkiewicz’s often interrupted studies (...