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Article

Christine Mullen Kreamer

Togolese painter, sculptor, engraver, stained glass designer, potter and textile designer. Beginning in 1946, he received his secondary education in Dakar, where he also worked in an architecture firm. He travelled to France and received his diplôme supérieur from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. A versatile artist, Ahyi is best known for his murals and for monumental stone, marble and cement public sculptures. His work reflects the fusion of his Togolese roots, European training and an international outlook, and he counts among his influences Moore, Braque, Modigliani, Tamayo, Siqueiros and Tall. His work combines ancient and modern themes and materials, maternity being a prominent topic. The messages of his larger, public pieces operate on a broad level to appeal to the general populace, while smaller works often reflect his private engagement with challenges confronting the human condition. His compositions are both abstract and figurative and evoke the heroism and hope of the two world wars, Togo's colonial period and the struggle for independence from France, as well as the political efforts of the peoples of Vietnam, South Africa and Palestine. Ahyi has won numerous international prizes, including the prize of the city of Lyon (...

Article

Bauhaus  

Rainer K. Wick

German school of art, design and architecture, founded by Walter Gropius. It was active in Weimar from 1919 to 1925, in Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and in Berlin from 1932 to 1933, when it was closed down by the Nazi authorities. The Bauhaus’s name referred to the medieval Bauhütten or ...

Article

Valerie Holman

He attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, from 1911, until he joined the army in 1915. After World War I he devoted himself primarily to painting. In 1922 he met Juan Gris with whose encouragement his early Matisse-influenced rhythmical compositions acquired greater stability. In the late 1920s he was promoted by Tériade as a successor to the Cubists, with such works as ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1914, in Paris.

Painter, fresco artist, potter.

Maurice Claude Bertrand showed work at the Salons d'Automne, the Réalités Nouvelles and the Artistes Décorateurs. He worked with architects, incorporating his painted ceramic panels into their buildings. His mural decorative work tended to abstract geometric form, reminiscent of the orphic movement inspired by the Delaunays....

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with ...

Article

Alastair Laing

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1830, in Caen; died 1902, in Tours.

Painter, watercolourist, potter. Urban views, architectural views, landscapes, waterscapes.

Tours School.

Brard's father was a locksmith and left his hometown to live in Paris, leaving his son apprenticed to a painter of awnings. Léon then studied with the landscape artist Victor de Grailly at the École des Beaux-Arts in Caen. He settled in Tours in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1795, in London; died 1855.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. Historical subjects, figures, architectural views.

Alfred Clayton was an architect as well as an artist and author of many engravings.

London, 10 July 1984: Figures in a Temple (watercolour pencil and pen heightened with white...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1892, in Florence; died 1974, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, potter, illustrator. Figures, landscapes.

Colucci studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and then left to work in Cairo. In 1917, he travelled to Africa and began to paint. He returned to Paris in 1919, where he exhibited for the first time. He exhibited etchings at the Salon d'Automne and the Surindépendants, and his works were hung amongst those of Gleizes, Herbin, Delaunay, Duchamp-Villon, Férat and Survage. In 1929, he took up pottery in Aubagne. In 1939, he belonged to the ...

Article

Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 14 November 1949, in Morro d'Alba (province of Ancona, Marche).

Sculptor, draughtsman, painter, mixed media, potter. Figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Transavanguardia.

Enzo Cucchi is 'the third C' of the Italian Transavangardia movement, with Sandro Chia and Francesco Clemente. He spent some time at the school in Macerata working in conceptual art and also as a restorer. He lives and works in Ancona and Rome....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1530, in Perugia; died 1576, in Perugia.

Painter, sculptor (bronze/marble/cast iron/clay), draughtsman, goldsmith, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Groups, statues, low reliefs.

Vincenzo Danti was the brother of Girolamo and Egnazio Danti. He worked initially in the goldsmiths' trade, in whose guild he enrolled in ...

Article

German, 18th century, male.

Born 1683, in Dresden; died December 1753, in Meissen.

Painter, architect.

The son of H.C. Fehling, Carl Fehling taught at the school of drawing at the Meissen porcelain factory. His drawings and the engravings he made from them were held in the Dresden print collection....

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1819, in Lancashire, England; died 1869, in Potter’s Bar, Hertfordshire, England.

Photographer, painter. Landscapes, war scenes, architectural subjects, portraits.

Born to a wealthy family, Roger Fenton studied mathematics, Greek, and Latin at University College London. After graduating with a bachelor of arts in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1910, in Russia; died 30 September 1990, in Roussillon, France.

Painter, collage artist, ceramicist.

Eugène Fidler studied in Nice, then in Paris where he was admitted to the École d'Architecture. He dropped this subject and concentrated on painting and pottery. He settled in Vallauris after World War II and continued his work as a ceramicist. From ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 December 1859, in Vannes; died 23 March 1927, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, potter, engraver, draughtsman. Nudes, portraits, genre scenes, sporting subjects, architectural views, landscapes, flowers.

Paul Helleu was the pupil of Gérôme at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. In 1893 he became a member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and was also an honorary member of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Engravers in London. He was made Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur in 1904. It appears that he initially abandoned painting in favour of ceramics, but returned to painting by way of decorative works and was also an engraver of great skill. He was one of those artists who best synthesise modern elegance in both his paintings and his engravings or dry-point work. With technical ability he rendered the spirit of 20th-century feminine grace. But before devoting himself to this style, he was a painter of old churches, of Gothic naves and stained glass windows with the play of sunlight on them. His ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in Switzerland.

Born 4 May 1874, in Hörde (Westphalia); died 18 July 1949, in Interlaken or Beatenberg (Canton of Bern).

Sculptor (including bronze/majolica/ceramics), painter (including gouache), engraver, draughtsman, architect, graphic designer. Statuettes, figurines.

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Worpswede Artists' Colony...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born in Paris; died 1857, in Paris.

Painter. Architectural views.

A pupil of Legay, Pierre Huard exhibited at the Salon from 1831 to 1855. He worked at the Sèvres porcelain manufactory, and was also director of both the École de Dessin and the Musée d'Antiquité in Arles (Bouches-du-Rhône)....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Achel.

Painter, potter.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art.

Research Group.

Jos Jans was educated at the provincial institute of architecture and the applied arts in Hasselt. He was a founder member of the Research Group . Jans was awarded the Limbourg fine arts prize in ...