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Article

Michèle Lavallée

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 4 January 1887, in London; died 1941.

Painter, illustrator, metal worker, textile designer. Landscapes.

Gregory Brown designed posters for railway companies, the Empire Marketing Board and for the Underground Group from 1914 to 1940. He won a gold medal for textile design at the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1912, in St-Étienne; died 5 December 1995, in Paris.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator, medallist. Wall decorations, designs for tapestries, designs for mosaics, designs for stained glass, frescoes, ceramics.

Jacques Despierre entered the studio of Lucien Simon at the École Nationale Superieur des Beaux-Arts in Paris in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Etterbeek (Brussels).

Painter, sculptor, medallist, ceramicist, draughtsman, decorative designer, illustrator. Designs for tapestries.

Roger Duterme studied at the Etterbeek school of industrial art and design, and the Academy of St Luke in Brussels, where he later taught drawing. He became director of the École des Arts in Ixelles. He made large decorative panels for the Pavillon du St-Siège at the ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 19 November 1865, in Hamburg; died 11 June 1902, in Badenweiler.

Painter, decorative artist, illustrator, engraver, designer, ceramicist, textile designer. Portraits, landscapes, flowers. Designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, advertising posters, fabrics, ceramics, metal objects, ironware, lamps, furniture, typefaces, jewellery, wallpaper...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 September 1935, in Philippeville, Algeria.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, engraver, medallist, illustrator. Figures, landscapes. Wall decorations, designs for stained glass, postage stamps.

Irolla's figurative painting is traditional, depicting the skies of Champagne, its valleys, vineyards, village churches and streets. He executed stained glass windows (Châlons-sur-Marne), mural decorations (Vitry-le-François, St-Memmie, Châlons-sur-Marne) and numerous postage stamps. He also illustrated several books, notably ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, female.

Active in Belgium.

Born 1917, in Vienna.

Designer, illustrator, graphic designer, scenographer. Stage costumes and sets, wall decorations, medals, postage stamps.

From 1932 to 1939 May Néama was a pupil at the studios for publicity and décor of the theatre of the Instituut voor Sierkunsten en Ambachten in Antwerp, where she taught between ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 November 1875, in Teterov (Mechlemburg).

Painter, lithographer, engraver, decorative designer. Ex-libris plates, designs (precious metals).

Rudolf Rochga was a pupil of Franz von Stuck at the Munich Academy. He gave goldsmith's designs to the firm of Peter Bruckmann & Son at Heilbronn. In ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 22 March 1875, in London; died 1963.

Painter, illustrator, poster artist, decorative artist. Cityscapes, architectural views, scenes with figures.

Fred Taylor studied at the Académie Julian in Paris and Goldsmiths College in London. He became one of Britain's foremost poster artists and received regular commissions from London Transport, LNER and shipping companies from the turn of the century until the 1940s. He also worked as an illustrator and decorative artist, notably designing decorative schemes for the former Underwriter's Room at Lloyds of London, and murals for Austin Reed's red laquer room in ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 30 November 1853, in Copenhagen; died 2 April 1932, in Fredensborg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, caricaturist, miniaturist, designer. Wall decorations, postage stamps, ex-libris plates, medals.

Tegner was the son of the lithographer and portraitist Isaac Wilhelm Tegner, and the nephew of Christian Martin. He trained under Jørgen Roed at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen. He was director of the technical college of the museum of Copenhagen, and of a porcelain factory....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1871, in Berchtesgaden; died 1936.

Painter, decorative designer, illustrator. Designs (decorative arts, precious metals, jewellery), ex-libris plates.

Bernard Wenig was a pupil at the Kunstgewerbeschule and of the Akademie für Bildende Kunst at Munich under the direction of Rudolf von Seitz and Franz von Stuck. He taught ...