Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....
Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.
The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....
German, 19th century, male.
Born 19 November 1865, in Hamburg; died 11 June 1902, in Badenweiler.
Painter, decorative artist, illustrator, engraver, designer, ceramicist, textile designer. Portraits, landscapes, flowers. Designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, advertising posters, fabrics, ceramics, metal objects, ironware, lamps, furniture, typefaces, jewellery, wallpaper...
British, 19th – 20th century, male.
Born 1862, in Birmingham; died 4 June 1928.
Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, worker in precious metals, designer. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits. Jewellery.
Arts and Crafts.
Arthur Joseph Gaskin studied at the Birmingham School of Art, where he later taught. He was a member of the Arts and Crafts movement founded by William Morris, whose aim was to revitalise the decorative arts. From 1899, together with his wife Georgina Cave France, he created gold and silver jewellery, sometimes decorated with enamel. In 1902, he replaced R. Catterson Smith as director of the Birmingham School of Jewellery. He exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy in London in 1889 and 1890 and jewellery at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle....