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Article

Afzal  

Persian illustrator. Active during the reign of the Safavid shah ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Afzal produced manuscript illustrations and single pages for albums in different styles. Most of the 62 paintings he made for the voluminous copy (St Petersburg, Saltykov-Shchedrin Pub. Lib., Dorn 333) of Firdawi’s ...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian illustrator, illuminator and calligrapher . The grandson and pupil of Sultan-Muhammad , Zayn al-‛Abidin worked exclusively for royal and noble patrons at the Safavid court in Qazvin ( see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a) ). He contributed an illustration of Nariman Killing the Ruler of China to a copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 12985; fol. 90...

Article

Illustrator and painter. According to the Safavid chronicler Dust Muhammad, ‛Abd al-Hayy trained under Shams al-Din at Baghdad during the reign of the Jalayirid sultan Uways I (reg 1356–74) and became the leading painter under his son Ahmad (reg 1382–1410), who was also ‛Abd al-Hayy’s pupil. When Timur took Baghdad, ‛Abd al-Hayy was sent to Samarkand, either in ...

Article

Persian illustrator. Khwaja ‛Ali of Tabriz is named as illuminator and illustrator in the colophon to a fine copy (Istanbul, Tokapı Pal. Lib., H. 781) of Nizami’s Khamsa (‘Five poems’), completed in 1445–6 for Ismat al-Dunya, the wife of the Timurid prince Muhammad Juki. The artist is probably to be identified with the ‘portraitist’ of that name who, according to ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian illustrator. According to the Safavid chronicler Qazi Ahmad, during the lifetime of the famous painter Sultan-Muhammad, his son Mirza ‛Ali worked in the library of the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I and had no match in figural and decorative painting and in portraiture. The Ottoman historian Mustafa ‛Ali placed Mirza ‛Ali at the head of the list of designers and called him a celebrated master and painter. Two paintings in the magnificent copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 2265, fols 48...

Article

Persian illustrator. The son of a painter, Muhammad ‛Ali became one of the most popular and prolific painters at the court of the Safavid monarch ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66). Muhammad ‛Ali was a skilled and competent artist who preferred rounded contours and simple forms. Although he was not as innovative in form and style as his contemporary ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian calligrapher, illustrator, painter and poet. He was a versatile artist who belonged to the second generation working for Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76) at the Safavid court in north-west Iran (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). His career has been reconstructed by Dickson and Welch on the basis of brief notices by Safavid artists and historians, signed calligraphies and ascribed paintings. He studied calligraphy with the master ...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Iranian illustrator. He was one of the most renowned painters at the court of the Timurid sultan Husayn Bayqara (see Timurid family, §II, (8)) and his associate ‛Alishir Nava’i (see also Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(d)). The chronicler Mīrzā Muhammad Haydar Dughlāt (...

Article

Bihzad  

Priscilla P. Soucek

Persian illustrator. The most famous master of Persian painting, he is important both for the paintings he executed and for the wider influence of the style associated with his name. Evidently orphaned at a young age, Bihzad is said to have been raised and trained by ...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

(b Kawashan, nr Herat, c. 1490; d c. 1565). Persian calligrapher, illustrator and man of letters. A pupil of Bihzad, Dust Muhammad was in service to the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I. The artist’s earliest signed works are three calligraphic specimens executed at Herat in ...

Article

Josetsu  

Karen L. Brock

Japanese painter and Zen monk. Contemporary biographical information about Josetsu is limited to two references. A brief entry dated 1448 in the diary of the Onryōken, a subtemple of Shōkokuji in Kyoto, mentions that in around 1416 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi consulted with Josetsu about going to the island of Shikoku in search of stone for the carving of a stele in commemoration of Shōkokuji’s founder, Musō Soseki. The entry makes no mention of Josetsu as a painter, but it suggests his acquaintance with Yoshimochi and an association with Shōkokuji, which was an important centre in the development of ink painting in the Muromachi period (...

Article

Junayd  

Illustrator. In the preface recounting the history of past and present painters in an album compiled for the Safavid prince Bahram Mirza in 1544 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154), the chronicler Dust Muhammad stated that Junayd of Baghdad was a pupil of Shams al-Din, who worked under the Jalayirid sultan ...

Article

Esin Atil

Ottoman soldier, writer, copyist and illustrator. He initiated the topographical style of painting that became characteristic of the illustrated histories produced at the Ottoman court in the 1550s (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(e)). As a youth he was recruited into the imperial service in a forced levy (...

Article

Mirak  

S. J. Vernoit

Persian calligrapher, illuminator and illustrator. The chroniclers Mirza Muhammad Haydar Dughlat and Dust Muhammad refer to Mirak as the teacher of the painter Bihzad, who was also brought up by Mirak, according to the author Qazi Ahmad. Mirak rose to become director of the library of the Timurid Sultan Husayn (...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian illustrator and painter. He was painter, purveyor and boon companion to the Safavid shah Tahmasp I and was well known in contemporary circles. The contemporary chronicler Dūst Muhammad mentioned that Aqa Mirak along with Mir Musavvir did wall paintings for Prince Sam Mirza’s palace in Tabriz and illustrations for royal manuscripts of Firdawsi’s ...

Article

Mu‛in  

Eleanor Sims

Persian illustrator and painter. Numerous works clearly signed in black ink mu‛īn muṣavvir (‘Mu‛in the painter’) establish the dates of this artist’s activity. He codified the style developed by his teacher Riza and remained impervious to the eclecticism of late 17th-century art (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)...

Article

Illustrator. Darvish Muhammad was active at the court of the Aqqoyunlu sultans Khalil (reg 1478) and Ya‛qub (reg 1478–90). His name appears in a lengthy note to a fine copy (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 762, fols 316v–317r) of Nizami’s ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair

Persian calligrapher and illustrator. Son of a master calligrapher who specialized in religious manuscripts, he studied with the painter and chronicler Dust Muhammad, who mentioned Shaykh Muhammad as one of the calligraphers working in the royal library of the Safavid monarch Tahmasp I (reg...

Article

Sheila R. Canby

Persian draughtsman and illustrator. Although the Ottoman historian Mustafa ‛Ali identified Muhammadi as a son of Sultan-Muhammad (quoted in Armenag Bey Sakisian: La Miniature Persane (Paris and Brussels, 1929), p. 123), such a kinship is unlikely in light of Muhammadi’s epithet Haravī (from Herat) used in an inscription on a painting after Muhammadi (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. ...

Article

Ernst J. Grube

Persian illustrator. In the preface to an album he compiled for the Safavid prince Bahram Mirza in 1544 (Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2154), the Safavid librarian Dust Muhammad wrote that during the reign of the Ilkhanid Abu Sa‛id (reg 1317–35) the master Ahmad Musa ‘lifted the veil from the face of depiction, and the [style of] depiction that is now current was invented by him’. Dust Muhammad credited Ahmad Musa with illustrating an ...