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Article

Gordon Campbell

French 16th-century château and garden near Tonnerre, in Burgundy. Antoine de Clermont, brother-in-law of Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers commissioned Sebastiano Serlio, who was employed at the court of Francis I, to design the château and garden; construction on a large level site began ...

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V. Hoffmann

French 16th-century château c. 75 km west of Paris, in the département of Eure-et-Loire. In 1546 Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers, widow of Louis de Brézé (d 1531), began to build a modest house in the village of Anet; it underwent considerable and magnificent enlargement (after ...

Article

J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in ...

Article

Claudia Lazzaro

Italian estate near Viterbo, c. 65 km north-east of Rome. It was built for Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara, Bishop of Viterbo, from c. 1568, and the design of the whole estate, comprising small twin palaces (palazzine, called casinos in the 17th century), a formal garden and a park, is attributed to ...

Article

Jean Martin-Demézil

French château on the River Cher, near Amboise, Indre-et-Loire. Having belonged to the lords of Marques from the 13th century, it was razed in 1411 and in 1513 came into the possession of Thomas Bohier (d 1524), a financier from Tours who became Deputy Treasurer to Louis XII. He set about an ambitious scheme (...

Article

Grotto  

Barbara Rietzsch

Artificial cavern built above a spring or a fountain, usually in a private garden. In Classical times grottoes were widespread in Mediterranean countries, and after the Renaissance they became common throughout Europe. Used initially as a place in which to honour the Muses and to seek philosophical inspiration, the grotto could also form a pleasant summer retreat, the running water affording coolness and repose. It gradually acquired associations with magic and alchemy, and later with Christianity....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English country house and garden in Hertfordshire built for Cecil family, §2, Earl of Salisbury, between 1607 and 1612. The U-shaped house is a distinguished example of a Jacobean nobleman’s house, with a central hall and two symmetrical wings. The large two-storey hall with its minstrels’ gallery and plastered ceiling is a development of the English medieval hall. The state apartments are on the first floor, in the Italian style. The oak staircase that leads to these apartments is one of the finest in England....

Article

Michael Spens

English landscape designer, urban planner, architect and writer. He was educated in London at the Architectural Association School (1919–24). His book Italian Gardens of the Renaissance (with J. C. Shepherd), derived from student research, was published in 1925, the year in which he qualified as an architect. He soon established his practice in London. In the 1930s he was instrumental in developing the Institute of Landscape Architects (now the Landscape Institute) as a professional body. He taught at the Architectural Association School (...

Article

David R. Coffin

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art....

Article

Gordon Campbell

An artificial hill in a garden setting. The mount was often hollow, and its interior could be used for storage and to provide shelter for delicate plants. Mounts first appear in Italy, where they were a feature of both botanical gardens (where they helpfully produced differentiated microclimates) and villa gardens. The original mounts still survive in the botanical gardens at Padua, Montpellier (where the terraced mount is oblong) and in the Jardins des Plantes in Paris, where the mount was originally planted with vines. The fashion later spread to England, where mounts were constructed at New College Oxford (...

Article

Patrick Goode

Villa and gardens 12 km north-east of Florence, Italy. They were created between c. 1569 and 1581 for Francesco I de’ Medici by Bernardo Buontalenti. By the end of the 16th century the garden was probably the most famous in Europe, because of its grottoes, ...

Article

French royal château, west of Paris in the Yvelines département. It was begun c. 1124 by Louis VI (reg 1108–37) as a fortified hunting-lodge in the forests of St Germain and Marly on the site of a 10th-century monastery founded by Robert the Pious (...

Article

J. Krčálová

Italian sculptor and architect, active in Bohemia. He was commissioned by Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia (Holy Roman Emperor, 1556–64), to design the Summer Palace (Belvedere) in the formal gardens of Hradčany Castle (see Prague, §IV, 1) and prepared a model of it in Genoa in ...

Article

James Holderbaum

Italian sculptor, engineer and garden designer. He was apprenticed in Florence first as a wood-carver with Giovanni d’Alesso d’Antonio and then as a sculptor with Jacopo Sansovino, whom he continued to assist well into the second decade of the 16th century. Vasari listed many works (most now untraced) from Tribolo’s youth, among which was his earliest fountain; an old terracotta copy (London, V&A) shows this unpretentious and slightly old-fashioned work to have featured two children and a spouting dolphin that foreshadow the blithe charm of his later masterpieces....

Article

David R. Coffin

Villa on the edge of the town of Tivoli, famous for its fine gardens with their spectacular fountains and waterworks. In 1550 Ippolito II d’Este, Cardinal of Ferrara, was appointed governor of Tivoli. He decided to transform the governor’s residence located in a portion of an old run-down Benedictine monastery attached to S Maria Maggiore into a lavish villa with splendid gardens devised by Pirro Ligorio. Although some gardens and vineyards were purchased below the monastery at this time, little was accomplished on the project for the next decade as the Cardinal was diverted by political affairs. The villa itself is, in architectural terms, somewhat plain. Ligorio did, however, execute a fine staircase loggia on the garden front. This is bordered on either side by ranges of private rooms, which are largely frescoed with such works as an ...