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Article

J. V. G. Mallet

English ceramic factory. The date of the foundation of the factory, situated in the London village of that name, is uncertain. It is likely that a French jeweller, Charles Gouyn (d 1785), founded the factory jointly with Nicholas Sprimont and that they obtained technical help from a German chemist, whose name is given, perhaps unreliably, as ‘d’Ostermann’. Around ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Modern pottery term for a type of 18th-century German porcelain group consisting of a woman in a hooped skirt accompanied by a well-dressed man and one or two servants; the genre was designed by Johann Joachim Kändler at Meissen in 1737 and was soon imitated by other German manufacturers....

Article

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Earthenware jug or mug in the form of a stout old man wearing 18th-century clothing consisting of a long and full-skirted coat and a three-cornered hat. The first Toby jugs seem to have been made at the Staffordshire factory of Aaron Wood family in the 1760s, and were thereafter made by many European and American potteries....