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David M. Jones

Site in the USA in East St Louis, IL, of a huge Pre-Columbian city. Founded c. ad 700, it was the largest prehistoric city ever built north of Mexico and was probably influenced by political and civic ideas from Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian. At its height, between ...


David M. Jones and Jaime Litvak King

Site in the Toluca Valley, Mexico. It was the capital and principal ceremonial centre of the Matlazinca people. The name derives from calli (Náhuatl: house) and ixtlahuaca (field or plain), thus ‘Place of houses on the plain’. Calixtlahuaca is one of the few Matlazinca sites known with substantial remains, and its architectural ruins, scattered on the hillside between the modern villages of Calixtlahuaca and Tecaxic, combine elements from central and northern Mesoamerica. Most of the site lies beneath the villages or the fields between the villages. Surface survey and excavations were carried out between ...


Terence Grieder

Site of Pre-Columbian culture in the highlands of Ancash Department, Peru. It was occupied late in Pre-Ceramic period V (c. 4200–c. 2500 bc), Pre-Ceramic period VI (c. 2500–c. 1800 bc), and the Initial period (c. 1800–c. 900...


David C. Grove

Site of Pre-Columbian Olmec political and religious centre in the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico, c. 15 km south-west of the Tuxtla Mountains in a region of rolling foothills. It has received less scholarly attention than the other Olmec centres of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, La Venta...


Muriel Porter-Weaver

Site of Mesoamerican Olmec culture in southern Puebla, Mexico. It flourished from the latter half (c. 1200 bc) of the Early Pre-Classic period (c. 2000–c. 1000 bc) to c. 800 bc in the early part of the Middle Pre-Classic period (...


Beatriz de la Fuente

Site in Mexico, in the southern Gulf Coast region, near the Chiquito River. The oldest known Pre-Columbian Olmec site, it was occupied c. 1500–c.400 bc and reoccupied in the Post-Classic period (c. ad 900–1521). By the mid-14th century bc the first public ...