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Gordon Campbell

French glass-maker. In the 1850s Brocard began to study the Islamic tradition of glass-making and to experiment with Islamic decorative techniques, such as staining and enamelling. He made reproduction 14th- and 15th-century Syrian glass which he first exhibited at the 1867 Exposition Universelle. Brocard could not read Arabic, but nonetheless used Arabic calligraphy to decorate his glassware; he sold to Europeans to whom the numerous errors in the Arabic were not apparent. Some of his best-known designs were based on mosque lamps in the Musée de Cluny, Paris....

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

The mid-19th-century fashion for imitating Japanese or other porcelain by covering the inner surface of glass vessels with designs on paper or sheet gelatine. Those who adopted the craze were called potichomanists.

A Handbook to Potishomachia, or the Art of Ornamenting and Decorating Glass, Giving to it the Appearance of Porcelain...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass....

Article

Spoilum  

Patrick Conner

Chinese painter for the Western export market. The artist known to Westerners as Spoilum – his Chinese name is uncertain – is first recorded in 1774, as the painter of a ‘reverse-glass’ portrait of a Western merchant. By the following decade he was painting in oils on canvas. Oil paint was an unfamiliar medium in the context of the Chinese pictorial tradition, and its use stemmed from Western influences. However, the Cantonese export painters of the late 18th century rapidly acquired a facility in this medium and, in the case of Spoilum, an individuality that could be regarded, in Western terms, as evidence of original genius....