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Article

Patrick Conner

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about ...

Article

S. J. Turner

English collector and antiquarian. He was educated at New College, Oxford. After inheriting a large fortune, he went on the Grand Tour to Italy (1740–42). He travelled extensively throughout his short life and went to Italy several times, acquiring antiquities, paintings, engravings, medals, cameos and, above all, drawings. His collection of Old Master drawings was one of the most important assembled in England in the first half of the 18th century. It included examples by ...

Article

Hollis Goodall-Cristante

Japanese painter and poet . He was a member of the second generation of literati painters in Japan. He and his contemporary Ike Taiga ( see Ike family, §1 ) absorbed and transformed the Chinese scholar–amateur style into a Japanese idiom ( Nanga or Bunjinga; see...

Article

Margaret Lyttleton

English antiquarian. He was educated at Winchester School and Queen’s College, Oxford. He became famous through the publication in 1763 of Marmora oxoniensia, an account of the statuary and inscriptions in the University collection, mostly from the Arundel Marbles (now Oxford, Ashmolean). Through Robert Wood, the author of ...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (...

Article

French antiquary and writer. He was the son of the Comte de Choiseul-Beaupré and married the heiress Adelaide-Marie-Louise de Gouffier, whose surname he assumed. He first followed a military career; then, inspired by the Abbé Jean-Jacques Barthélemy, he developed a taste for antiquities; in March 1776...

Article

Margaret Lyttleton

English traveller and antiquarian. He was educated at Oxford University, spent several years as a young man travelling in Italy and was elected as a member of the Society of Dilettanti in 1755. He was referred to in James Boswell’s Life of Johnson as ‘Jamaica Dawkins’, as his family had extensive sugar plantations in Jamaica. He travelled with ...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, ...

Article

French museum director, painter, printmaker, writer and military officer. He studied painting in Aix-en-Provence under Jean-Antoine Constantin, alongside his lifelong friend François-Marius Granet; further teachers included Jean-Jacques de Boissieu, Jean-Louis Demarne and, from 1796, Jacques-Louis David. He first exhibited at the Salon in that year. However, during the Empire he was chiefly celebrated as a soldier, writer and lover. He became Chamberlain and consort to Napoleon’s sister, Pauline Bonaparte, Princess Borghese, and was decorated for his conduct in the Portuguese and Austrian campaigns. In ...

Article

Mark H. Sandler

Japanese writer, naturalist, scholar and painter. He was born into a low-ranking samurai family in the Takamatsu Domain (now in Kagawa Prefect.) on Shikoku. His interest in the natural sciences developed while working in the medicinal herb garden of his lord, Matsudaira Yoritaka. In 1752–4...

Article

Jacqueline Colliss Harvey

English antiquary, topographer and writer. He was born into an enterprising family (at the age of 11, his father, Harry, had gone to China with his uncle, the explorer Sir Richard Gough) and displayed prodigious talents, learning Latin from Samuel Dyer, a friend of Dr Samuel Johnson, and at 11 himself began a ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan, §VI, 4, (vi), (d)...

Article

Karen M. Gerhart

Japanese painter, art critic and theorist. His family was descended from a tea master and samurai vassal of warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but by the time of Gyokushū’s birth the Kuwayama had given up Samurai status and become well-to-do shipping merchants. His highly influential essay on ...

Article

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese painter, printmaker and antiquarian. He was the second son of Sakai Tadamochi (1735–67), lord of Harima, and the main instigator of the revival of interest in the early 19th century in the Rinpa school of decorative painting (see Japan, §VI, 4, (v)...

Article

Issa  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1763; died 1827.

Painter, poet.

Issa lived in Shinona and Tokyo, and was a poet who wrote haikai ( haikai), Japanese poems of 17 syllables. He had a free and unconventional style, and left a large number of ...

Article

Kaji  

Japanese poet and calligrapher. Along with her adopted daughter Yuri, also a poet and calligrapher, she ran the Matsuya tea house in Kyoto, where intellectuals and literary figures gathered to hear her recite poetry. Her waka (31-syllable classical verse) poems were written casually and for the moment; hence few examples are extant. The calligraphy in these, however, is remarkable for its boldness, energy and flair, effects created by dramatic variations in the thickness of the lines. In ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master ...

Article

Korean painter, calligrapher and poet . Born the son of a government minister during the Chosŏn period (1392–1910), he was involved in the conspiracy of the Soron faction in 1755 and was exiled to Kilju in North Hamgyŏng Province. In 1762 he was transferred to Sinji Island, where he eventually died. He studied calligraphy with ...

Article

Wu Li  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher . He was one of the Six Orthodox Masters of the early part of the Qing period (1644–1911); the others included the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin, Wang Jian, Wang Hui and Wang Yuanqi, along with Yun Shouping ( see...