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Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a leading figure in the stele studies (...

Article

Joshua Drapkin

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the ...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with ...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, ...

Article

Y. de la Genardière

French sculptor. He began his career as a self-taught wood-carver, going on in 1813 to study sculpture in Lyon with Joseph Chinard and then with Joseph-Charles Marin. In 1817 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris as a pupil of François-Frédéric Lemot. He first exhibited at the Salon in ...

Article

Fuyo  

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Born 1722; died 1784, in Tokyo.

Painter.

Nanga (literati) school.

Fuyo was a Nanga style landscape painter who is also known as a seal carver. He lived in Kyoto and was a friend of the Ike family of painters.

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese seal-carver and scholar. He was the son of a doctor, Yūken; he studied at the private school of the official physician to the Tokugawa shogunate, Takeda Chōshun’in, but eventually abandoned his studies and went to Kyoto to pursue a career in the arts. The name Fuyō is taken from Fuyōhō (Lotus Peak), the sobriquet of Mt Fuji (its shape is said to resemble a lotus bud). His studio name, Kantankyo, also means ‘lotus’. Kō seems to have been an abbreviation of his wife’s clan name, Kondō. In middle age, he apparently changed his name a number of times, possibly because of his indirect connection with the activities of his fellow-villager Yamagata Daini (...

Article

Genkei  

Japanese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1648, in Kyoto; died 1710.

Sculptor, monk.

After having been a sculptor of Buddhist statues in Kyoto, Genkei became a monk in 1669, at the age of 21, and a disciple of Tetsugen Zenji. He then went on a long preaching tour of Japan during which he conceived the vast project of carving statues of the Rakan (the Arhats, or disciples of the Buddha). He went to Edo (now Tokyo) to seek the assistance of Tetsugyu Osho, a priest of the Gufuku-ji at Ushima, through whose good offices he was permitted to stay at the monastery attached to the Senso-ji (Asakusa-dera) at Edo. There, at the beginning of the Genroku period (...

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Activec.1775.

Born in Yangzhou (Jiangsu).

Painter. Figures, landscapes, flowers.

Guan Xining was a scholar, seal carver and calligrapher as well as a painter. Several of his works have survived.

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active in Hangzhou (Zhejiang).

Born 1744; died 1801.

Painter. Landscapes, flowers.

Huang Yi was also an archaeologist and an eminent seal carver.

Boston (MFA): Bay Surrounded on Three Sides by Mountains (small handscroll, seal of Huang Yi);Winter Landscape...

Article

Stephen Addiss

Japanese calligrapher and seal-carver. He was probably the most important Japanese master of Karayō (Chinese-style) calligraphy in the early 18th century. The son of a physician from Totomi Province (now in Shizuoka Prefect.), Kōtaku went to Edo as a youth to receive a Confucian education. He studied the Chinese classics with Sakai Zenken (...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese seal-carver. He learnt carving skills from his father, Maegawa Yūrin (1727–80), a seal-carver from the Osaka area, and also trained with the master of the Archaic school (Kotaiha), Kō Fuyō. Kyoshū engraved seals from a variety of materials and was especially adept at carving minute characters. In ...

Article

Japanese, 18th century, male.

Ivory worker.

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese family of seal-carvers, known as the Jōhekikyo school. They were masters of the Archaic style of seal-carving. The first member was Masuda Kinsai [Un’en, Jōhekikyo] (b Edo [now Tokyo], 1764; d Edo, 1833). Kinsai was succeeded by his adopted son, Masuda (Yamaguchi) Gūsho [Tōrei, Jōhekikyo II] (...

Article

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1718, in Yamanashi Prefecture; died 1810.

Sculptor.

Mokujiki, like the sculptor Enku who died in 1695, was an unorthodox monk and sculptor, an artist and man of religion who was close to the people. At the age of 45 he received the ...

Article

Donald F. McCallum

Japanese sculptor and Buddhist monk. He was an ascetic priest of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism, §III, 10) during the Edo period (1600–1868) and apparently functioned as an itinerant monk (hijiri) in early adulthood. At the age of 45 he took vows as a ‘wood-eater’ (...

Article

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 18th century.

Born in Jiangyin (Jiangsu Province).

Painter.

Shen Feng was a seal carver, calligrapher and landscape painter. Several of his works are known, such as River Panorama, with Pavilion and Trees on an Island...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese seal-carver, poet and editor. Afflicted by poverty in Kyoto, he moved to Osaka, where he studied Confucianism and Chinese literature with Katayama Hokkai (1723–90) and Hosoai Hansai (1727–1803) and joined the society of Chinese poetry, the Kontonshisha. He learnt seal-carving from ...

Article

Norihisa Mizuta

Japanese poet, seal-carver and doctor. He was born into a medical family; his father, Hashimoto Teijun, a famous doctor, had died young, and Shikin was brought up by one of Teijun’s pupils, Usui Itsuō. In his youth he studied in Kyoto, but he later succeeded to the family medical tradition in Osaka. He studied Confucianism under Suga Kankoku (...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher and seal-carver. He is generally recognized as the founder of the stele studies (beixue) movement, which sought inspiration from the stelae of the Northern Wei period (ad 386–534; see China, People’s Republic of, §IV, 2, (vii), (a)). He is also considered the founder of the so-called Deng school of ...