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Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray ...

Article

Chinese, 16th century, male.

Activec.1500.

Born in Pucheng (Fujian).

Painter.

Chen Zihe was originally a sculptor, but afterwards devoted himself to painting in the style of Lin Liang and Wu Wei.

London (British Mus.): Rocks and Chrysan­themums (with the seal of the artist...

Article

Enkai  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 11th century.

Sculptor.

Enkai was a Buddhist monk from Mount Shigi near Nara. He was one of the first ­sculptors to use the yosegi (joined-wood) style of carving, whereby monumental sculp­- tures were made from several different blocks of wood that had been carved separately and then put together. Until that time, these large wooden figures had been carved using the ichiboku technique, meaning out of a single block of wood. Enkai’s famous seated statue of ...

Article

Eri  

Japanese, 9th – 10th century, male.

Born 852 or 856; died 20 January or 24 December 935.

Painter, sculptor (wood).

Eri was the abbot of the Toji temple in Kyoto. He was initially bursar to the novices in 915. In August 928, he became assistant ‘master of the law’; in December, second in superior; in 932, ‘master of the law’; and in December, senior assistant to the monks....

Article

French, 13th century, male.

Born c. 1220; died 1289.

Sculptor, architect.

This artist is known above all as the architect of St Louis, for whom he worked in many churches in Paris and whom he accompanied to Palestine. As a sculptor, it is known that he carved in the Franciscan church a low relief for his own tomb....

Article

Hadji  

Turkish, 12th century, male.

Born to a family originally from Akhlat.

Sculptor (wood).

Hadji sculpted the minbar (stepped pulpit) in the mosque of Ala-ed Din in Konya in 1155.

Article

Japanese, 16th century, male.

Active at the end of the 16th century.

Born in Fushimi.

Sculptor.

Hidari Jingoro is considered one Japan’s greatest artists. His wood carving Sleeping Cat, one of the most famous works in Japan, is kept behind a silver grille in the Leyasu Temple. He was also an architect....

Article

Injo  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Died 1108.

Sculptor.

Injo, a Buddhist sculptor, is said to be the son of Kakujo or Chosei and the grandson of Jocho, a great sculptor who died in 1057. He was therefore part of an important line of artists who formed one of the two main currents of Buddhist art at the beginning of the Heian period. He is considered the founder of the Shichijo Omiya studio in Kyoto, where he continued to work, with his numerous assistants, in the style of Jocho. It was probably for this reason that he received the honorary title of ...

Article

Injo  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active at the end of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Injo was a Buddhist sculptor who received the title of Hoin (an ecclesiastical title conferred on sculptors). In 1295, he executed the Jizo Bosatsu (Sanskrit: Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha) of the Umegahata cemetery in Kyoto....

Article

Inkaku  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 12th century.

Sculptor.

Inkaku, a Buddhist artist in the line of Jocho who died in 1057, worked in the Shichijo Omiya studio, founded in Kyoto by Injo, who died in 1108. He is said to be the sculptor of the statue of the Amida Buddha (Sanskrit: Amithaba Buddha) in the Hokongo-in monastery in Kyoto, dated ...

Article

Inkei  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 12th century.

Died 1179.

Sculptor.

Inkei, who lived at Nishikikoji Omiya in Kyoto, was probably the son of Inkaku. He was considered a master sculptor ( dai busshi) and, like his father, worked in the style of Jocho (died in ...

Article

Inken  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Inken, the son of Incho, was a Buddhist sculptor at the beginning of the Kamakura period. He was a member of the In School, founded by the sculptor Inson in Kyoto. In the twelfth month of ...

Article

Inken  

Japanese, 15th century, male.

Active at the beginning of the 15th century.

Sculptor.

Inken held the title of Ho-in (‘seal of the law’, the highest title in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, also conferred on sculptors). In the third month of 1404 he executed a statue of Shotoku Taishi (Prince Shotoku, 572-622), the first great supporter of Buddhism in Japan, for the Jodo-ji temple in Onomichi, in Hyogo Prefecture....

Article

Inno  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Inno was a Buddhist sculptor and holder of the title of Hokkyo (‘bridge of the law’, an ecclesiastical title conferred on sculptors). On the first day of the eleventh month of ...

Article

Inshin  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active at the end of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Inshin was considered a Buddhist master sculptor ( dai busshi). From the twelfth month of 1251, he took part in the preparations for the assembling of the Buddhist statues in the Kofuku-ji temple in Nara. In ...

Article

Inshu  

Japanese, 13th century, male.

Active at the end of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Inshu was considered a Buddhist master sculptor ( dai busshi). He bore the honorary title of Ho-in (‘seal of the law’, the highest of the Buddhist ecclesiastical titles conferred on an artist). He took part in the restoration of the statues in the reading room of the Kofuku-ji temple in Nara. In ...

Article

Inson  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Born 1120; died 1198.

Sculptor.

Inson was the son or disciple of Inkaky, and is the principal representative of one of the two main currents of Buddhist sculpture at the end of the Heian (or Fujiwara) period and at the beginning of the Kamakura period. He was the founder of the In, or In-pa School, known as Shichijo Omiya Bussho. He spent his life as an artist, being particularly active between ...

Article

Jocho  

Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active in Kyoto.

Died 1057.

Sculptor.

At the end of the 9th century Japan was distancing itself from the influences of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618-906) and creating its own national art ( wa-yo).

Tradition places the sculptor Jocho at the origin of profound changes which would transform the style of sculpture and the social status of the artist. He can be traced back to ...