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Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Iranian scholar of Persian art. After graduating from the Dar al-Moallemin in Tehran in 1931, he worked at the court of Riza Pahlavi (r. 1925–41) until 1934, when he was sent to study art and archaeology in Europe. There, he studied at the Ecole du Louvre in Paris and under ...

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H. I. R. Hinzler

He began his studies with Classics at Leiden University in 1926 but then specialized in Sanskrit and South and South-east Asian archaeology under J. Ph. Vogel and N. J. Krom. He concluded his studies in 1933 with a thesis on 9th-century Indo-Javanese bronzes. He was curator of the Kern Institute in Leiden (...

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S. J. Vernoit

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of ...

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S. J. Vernoit

French art historian and archaeologist. He taught himself Sanskrit and Khmer while still at school and published his first article, on the early history of Cambodia, in 1904. He studied from 1911 at the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient, becoming a research fellow in Indo-Chinese philology in ...

Article

E. Errington

British archaeologist, numismatist and engineer. He obtained an Indian cadetship in 1828 through the patronage of Sir Walter Scott and received his commission as Second Lieutenant, Bengal Engineers, in 1831. After training at Addiscombe and Chatham, he was sent to India in 1833. Friendship with James Prinsep encouraged an immediate interest in Indian antiquities and led to his excavation of the ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Austrian historian of Byzantine, Islamic and Indian art. He studied art history and archaeology at the universities of Vienna and Graz and in 1902 completed his doctorate at Graz under Josef Strzygowski and Wilhelm Gurlitt, a study of the paintings in a manuscript of Dioskurides’ ...

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French archaeologist and art historian. He studied in Paris at the Sorbonne, the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, the Institut d’Ethnologie and the Ecole du Louvre, and also at the Institut Français d’Amsterdam and the Institut Français de Berlin. His teachers included Sylvain Lévi, Alfred Foucher, ...

Article

French art historian and archaeologist. He became interested in the history of India and in Sanskrit literature while working at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and this led to his first publication, Lapidaires indiens. In 1898 he became Director of the new Mission Archéologique of Indochina in Saigon, later known as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. In the following years he travelled throughout Indochina, organizing an inventory of historical monuments, establishing a library and a museum for the archaeological mission at Saigon, which was later transferred to Hanoi, and creating the ...

Article

French art historian and archaeologist. He qualified with an arts degree in 1888 and began postgraduate Sanskrit and Indian studies in 1891 at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne University. His primary interest was in Buddhist legend and tradition, and the relationship between India and the Western Classical world. In ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

French archaeologist and art historian, active in Iran. Godard qualified as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in 1910 became involved with the urban planning of Baghdad. At this time, he began to develop an interest in the archaeology and art of the Middle East. He visited Egypt and Syria and, in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese calligrapher, painter, archaeologist, collector, poet and government official. He was born into a wealthy, scholarly family, received a classical education and as a youth of 16 founded a school in Guangzhou (Canton) and a publishing company in Shanghai; at 17 he enrolled in law school at the Imperial University in Beijing. His studies were interrupted two years later by the Boxer Rebellion of ...

Article

M. Yaldiz

German explorer, archaeologist and art historian. He started his Asian studies in 1876 and obtained a doctorate in 1881 from the Technische Universität, Munich. In the same year, on the recommendation of his teacher Ernst Kuhn, he became an assistant in the Museum für Völkerkunde (Museum of Ethnology) in Berlin, where in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In ...

Article

Austrian art historian, archaeologist and anthropologist. In 1923 he pioneered South-east Asian anthropology with the chapter ‘Südostasien’ in Georg Buschan’s Illustrierte Völkerkunde. He had also become interested by this time in South-east Asian art history and archaeology. During World War II he sought refuge at the American Museum of Natural History, New York. He was co-founder of the East Indies Institute of America (later known as the South-east Asia Institute) and a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Royal Asiatic Society and the Royal Anthropological Institute, as well as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient. His research embraced such themes as the conceptions of state and kingship in South-east Asia, and cultural contacts and cultural change, including prehistoric migration and contacts across trade routes. As an art historian Heine-Geldern provided valuable information on old Javanese bronzes, South-east Asian sword handles and the archaeology and art of Sumatra and Nias. His writings showed an ability to handle both grand themes and minutiae....

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

Dutch archaeologist. He studied law (1901–2) at Leiden University but switched to Classics (1902–6) and continued with Dutch archaeology (1906–8). Meanwhile he was invited to succeed J. L. A. Brandes, who had died in 1905, as head of the Commission for Archaeological Survey in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He thus had to specialize in Sanskrit and Old Javanese in order to study inscriptions. From ...

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Karolina Lanckorońska

Polish archaeologist, writer, collector and patron, active in Austria. As an archaeologist his main interest lay in the architectural ruins of the late Roman Empire in Anatolia. In 1884 he organized an expedition of which he later published an account, Stadt Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Sketches made by ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Russian museum curator, archaeologist and authority on Central Asian archaeology, particularly the Sogdian ruins at Pendzhikent, Tajikistan.

After archaeological training at Moscow University (MA in Archaeology in 1956), Marshak pursued doctoral research at St. Petersburg and Moscow (first doctorate on 5th- and 7th-century Sogdian pottery at the Institute of Archaeology of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) in ...

Article

Tapati Guha-Thakurta

English archaeologist, active in India. Educated at Dulwich College and King’s College, Cambridge, Marshall was introduced to archaeology at the British School at Athens and took part in excavations in Crete. In 1902 he succeeded James Burgess as Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India, in which position he promoted both the conservation of existing structures and new site surveys and excavations....

Article

V. Ya. Petrukhin

Armenian archaeologist and art historian. He graduated from the history department at Yerevan University, then went to Leningrad (now St Petersburg) as a postgraduate student and worked under Boris Piotrovsky at the State Hermitage Museum. In 1959 he was appointed head of the early archaeology section at the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography. His particular interest was the prehistoric archaeology and culture of Armenia and the archaeology of Urartu. He took part in the excavations of Karmir Blur and led a general expedition to study the caves and petroglyphs of Armenia. His archaeological research is outlined in his doctoral thesis on Armenia in the Bronze and Early Iron Ages and in his monograph on the excavation of an Urartian city, Argishtikhinili. His specialist works are devoted to Armenian petroglyphs....

Article

Bent Nielsen

Japanese sinologist and archaeologist. He graduated in Oriental History from the Imperial University in Kyoto (now Kyoto National University) in 1928 and went on to study Chinese archaeology in the Tōa Kōkogakkai (Archaeological Society of the Far East) in Beijing (1929–31). During the years up to ...