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Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 31 January 1819, in New York City; died 14 December 1888, in New York City.

Photographer, businessman.

E. & H.T. Anthony (firm).

Edward Anthony received instruction in photography from Samuel F.B. Morse, an early practitioner of the medium. By 1844...

Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America....

Article

David Elliott

Mexican photographer and collector. He worked as a reporter for the Catholic newspaper El tiempo during the 1890s, becoming a staff photographer by 1900. He not only recorded the official functions and daily life in Mexico City under President Porfirio Díaz but also began to take an interest in social conditions, despite strict government censorship preventing publication of anything other than the most anodyne of images. He also began to collect the work of other photographers, which with his own work provide an invaluable record of Mexican life before, during and after the Revolution (...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 18 June 1813, in Hanover, New Hampshire; died 31 July 1867, in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Photographer, lithographer, inventor.

James A. Cutting’s earliest success was as the designer of a beehive patented in 1844. Later in the 1840s he was associated with several patents for railroad equipment, and in the 1850s he turned his attention to photographic experimentation. In ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues....

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 12 July 1854, in Waterville, New York; died 14 March 1932, in Rochester, New York, by suicide.

Inventor, businessman, and photographer.

In 1877 George Eastman, then a bank clerk, acquired his first camera. Committed to making the camera easier to use, he refined the dry plate process and produced dry plate negatives for sale. Searching to simplify the process further, he developed Eastman American Film, a flexible film that could be rolled up and was easier to manipulate than glass plates. In 1884 Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company was formed with investor Henry Strong as president and Eastman as treasurer. Eastman continued to create new products and eventually patented 32 inventions....

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

German photographer and collector. He trained as a photographer and specifically as a photojournalist before he fought in World War II. From 1950 he studied at the Schule für Angewandte Kunst in Weimar. In 1952 he moved to Mannheim, where he set up a studio and organized numerous exhibitions of contemporary art. In the following years he produced many volumes of photographs, including portraits of cities. He also produced series of pictures that are narrative in intent but dramatic and heavy in tone. Between ...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 1823; died 1883.

Photographer, writer, editor.

After working for several years as a daguerreotypist throughout Ohio, North Carolina and New York, Samuel Dwight Humphrey opened a studio on Broadway in New York City in 1850. In November 1850 he began publishing ...

Article

Kevin Halliwell

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in ...

Article

Eugenia Parry Janis

French photographer, painter, printmaker, and collector. After studying with the sculptor James Pradier and the painters Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840) and Paul Delaroche, he made his début at the Salon of 1842, winning a third-class medal there in 1845. He turned to photography in the wave of self-enrichment preceding the ...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

German photographer and collector. He was a self-taught photographer but was given some support by his friend Andreas Feininger. For a long time he worked at various jobs and for the family coffee importing business. He fled from Germany in 1936 and went first to London and then to Paris, where he became a professional photographer and enjoyed a great success with publications in ...

Article

Astrid Schmetterling

British photographer, writer and collector of German birth. He began to study fine art and art history in Munich and Berlin in 1912, but had to interrupt his studies in 1914 on the outbreak of World War I. While serving as an officer at the front he began to take photographs. He resumed his studies in ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family, §1 to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (...

Article

Kohtaro Iizawa

Japanese photographer, painter and patron. The eldest son of a wealthy banker, he studied economics at Keio University but left in 1912 because of mild tuberculosis. By this time he had begun to work seriously as an amateur photographer, becoming a member of the influential amateur group, the ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Active in London.

Born c. 1826; died 21 January 1909.

Painter, photographer, art dealer. Portraits.

John Robert Parsons was a successful portraitist during the 1850s and 1860s. He later became an art dealer and photographer, taking pictures of important artists and their work. He was a friend of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Charles Augustus Howell. In ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1864, in Hoboken, New Jersey; died 13 July 1946, in New York City.

Photographer, writer, editor, gallery owner, collector. Cityscapes, landscapes, portraits.

Pictorialism, Modernism. The Linked Ring, Photo-Secession

Alfred Stieglitz was the eldest of six children and attended New York schools before moving to Germany in 1881. There Stieglitz studied photography with photo-chemist Hermann Vogel beginning in 1883. Returning to New York in 1890, Stieglitz joined the Society of Amateur Photographers and became increasingly involved with Pictorialism. Often characterized by a soft-focus, painterly quality, the Pictorialist aesthetic appears in his pictures from this period, such as ...

Article

Judith Zilczer

American photographer, editor, publisher, patron and dealer. Internationally acclaimed as a pioneer of modern photography, he produced a rich and significant body of work between 1883 and 1937 (see fig.). He championed photography as a graphic medium equal in stature to high art and fostered the growth of the cultural vanguard in New York in the early 20th century....

Article

James Smalls

American patron and photographer. He began his career as a music and theatre critic, and as a novelist of light fiction. After graduating from the University of Chicago in 1906, he joined the staff of the New York Times as an assistant music critic and soon gained prominence within the worlds of music, theatre, and the performing arts. In ...