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Norwegian, 19th century, male.

Born 1811, in Bergen; died 1889.

Painter. Landscapes, mountainscapes, urban landscapes.

Condemned to 40 years of forced labour for forgery and deported to Norfolk Island in the Pacific in 1846, Knud Bull was transferred to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) the following year. Freed conditionally in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese painter, calligrapher, collector and forger . From an artistic family, he began to paint under the tutelage of his mother, Ceng Yi, and did his first paid painting for the local fortune-teller when he was 12 years old. Zhang’s elder sister gave him his first lessons in the classics. At 15 he embarked on three years of schooling at the Qiujing Academy in Chongqing. In ...

Article

Alessandro Conti

Italian forger, restorer and writer. He is best known for his autobiography, a broad panoramic portrait of life in provincial Italy at the end of the 19th century, which conveys something of the disquiet concerning the loss of Italy’s prestige. He also worked as a skilful forger and restorer at a time when the distinctions between the two activities were blurred. Much of his success as a forger was due to the fact that he imitated either the works of lesser painters (such as ...

Article

Kokan  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1747, in Edo (now Tokyo); died 1818, in Edo.

Painter, engraver.

Kokan, a pupil of Harunobu (1725?-1770), one of the great ukiyo-e masters, is infamous as one of the most brilliant forgers of his master’s work, openly admitting his wrongdoing in his autobiography ...

Article

Dutch painter and forger. He studied art at The Hague Academie and obtained his degree in 1914. He became a painter of mediocre talent, though a respected one. It is said that he developed a grievance against the critics who had slighted his work and began to manufacture forgeries of 17th-century Dutch masters, perhaps as early as ...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Austrian goldsmith, forger and thief. In the 1860s the Geistliche Schatzkammer in Vienna sent five items from its collection to Weininger’s workshop for restoration. Weininger made copies of each item and sold the originals. The best-known artefact was The Holy Thorn Reliquary of Jean, duc de Berry (...