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Article

Italian, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active Lombard artist, active at around the same time as Giotto.

Fresco artist.

Andreino da Edesia was probably of Byzantine origin but biographers disagree about the artist. Zani refers to him from 1290 to 1310 and Lomazzo in 1330. The fresco of ...

Article

Angelus  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Venetian School.

Of Venetian origin. An Behold the Man ( Ecce Homo) in the Byzantine style is signed Angelus painted this ( Angelus pinxit).

Venice (Mus. Correr): Ecce homo (signed)

Article

Asinou  

Susan Young

Byzantine church in Cyprus, situated on the west side of the island, 4 km south-west of the village of Vizakia. The church was originally part of the monastery of the Phorbia (destr.), and a marginal note in a synaxarion copied in Cyprus or Palestine in ...

Article

Astrapa  

Serb, 13th – 14th century, male.

Painter.

This Byzantine artist was working around the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century. Employed as painter to the king Milutin, he had many assistants in his studio, including in particular his sons Entychios and Mikhail. A stylistic shift towards greater expression was discernible in the work emerging from their studio, dealing with subjects such as poetry, fables and religious history. Numerous frescoes are attributed to these artists, for instance ...

Article

A. Dean McKenzie

(fl c. 1290–1311). Byzantine painter active in Macedonia. ‘Astrapas’ (Gr.: ‘lightning’) is a pseudonym, and some scholars doubt that it refers to a particular artist. Although the name Astrapas appears together with the name Michael on the wall painting (1295) in the church of the Mother of God Peribleptos in ...

Article

Berende  

Tania Velmans

Village c. 40 km north of Sofia in Bulgaria. It is famous for its Byzantine church dedicated to St Peter. Built on the edge of the River Nishava, the church has a single nave (4.50×8.50 m) and contains on the west façade fragments of a donor inscription referring to King ...

Article

Boyana  

Tania Velmans

Village 8 km south of Sofia in Bulgaria, famous for its two Byzantine churches. The earlier of the pair, which stand side by side, is dedicated to the Virgin; various building dates have been proposed, including the 10th century, the 11th and the early 12th. It is a small cruciform structure with a dome over a high drum and an apse pierced with arched windows. Several badly damaged frescoes survive inside, depicting the ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Activec.1227.

Born in Bologna.

Painter. Historical subjects, portraits.

Venetian School.

This artist was a member of the first association of painters formed in Venice by Byzantine painters.

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Florence at the beginning of the 13th century.

Mosaicist.

A Franciscan, in 1225 he decorated with mosaic in the Byzantine style the annex tribune of the Baptistery of S Giovanni, Florence. This artist should not be confused with Jacobsz. de Turrina....

Article

Susan Young

Byzantine monastery in Cyprus, c. 50 km west of Nicosia. The only information concerning its foundation is that which can be gleaned from the three adjoining churches of the katholikon and their decoration. All are of different date with a narthex common to the central and southern churches. A massive, pitched, timber roof, of a type common among the Cypriot mountain churches, covers the complex....

Article

Kildare  

Roger Stalley

Monastic site in Co. Kildare, Ireland. Kildare was one of the great monastic cities of early Christian Ireland and the principal church of the kings of Leinster. Founded by St Brigid (d between 524 and 528), it was unusual in being a double monastery, served by both nuns and monks. In the 12th century it was chosen as a bishopric, and, following the Anglo-Norman conquest of Ireland, a Gothic cathedral was constructed, probably by ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Born 1216, in Arezzo; died 1293, in Arezzo.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

This artist, who in his time had a great reputation, belongs stylistically to the Byzantine School. He was Cimabue's oldest rival, but despite the latter's success he does not seem to have had the slightest influence on Margaritone. Vasari writes at length about this master and refers to a large number of his works in Arezzo and elsewhere that have since disappeared. Pope Urban IV summoned him to Rome and had him decorate the porch of the old basilica of St Peter. Among works by Margaritone are a ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active Tuscan, active in the first part of the 13th century.

Sculptor.

Named after the architrave low relief of St John the Baptist on the porch of the Baptistery of Pisa. This sculptor's style shows very clear Byzantine influences.

Article

John Richards

Italian painter. He was an eclectic and apparently prolific artist whose works record the transition from Italo-Byzantine painting of the 13th century to the Giottesque milieu of the 14th. They also indicate the importance of Florentine styles for Lucchese painting in his time. The earliest work attributed to him is a Crucifix with a living Christ (...

Article

Barbara Zeitler

Byzantine imperial dynasty of patrons. Between the reigns of Michael VIII (reg 1259–82) and Constantine XI (reg 1449–53), the empire underwent a last flowering of Byzantine art; at the same time there was a marked change in patterns of patronage. Constrained by financial difficulties, the imperial family was no longer the most important patron of the arts, although the artistic patronage exercised by ...

Article

Debra Higgs Strickland

Early Christian allegorical and moralizing text about animals originally composed in Greek by an unknown author, probably during the 2nd century ad in Alexandria. The precise meaning of the name, Physiologus, is unclear, but it has been translated as ‘The Naturalist’ or ‘Natural Philosopher’. The text’s narrator discourses on the natural world, combining ancient animal myth and lore with biblical references in order to draw allegorical parallels between animal and human behaviour with references to Christ, the Devil and the Jews. For example, the hoopoe chicks’ diligent and loving care of their ageing parents is held up as an admirable example of obeying God’s commandment to ‘honour thy father and mother’. The panther, whose sweet breath attracts all animals except the dragon, is likened to the sweetness of Christ, which attracts everyone but the Devil. The unclean hyena, known to change its sex from male to female and back again, is compared to ‘the duplicitous Jews, who first worshiped the true God but were later given over to idolatry’. As testimony to its wide popularity, the Greek ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Spoleto (Umbria) in 1267.

Mosaicist.

There is a large mosaic in the Byzantine style by this artist on the façade of Spoleto Cathedral. It depicts Christ Enthroned, the Virgin and St John.

Article

Virginia Roehrig Kaufmann

Term used to describe the predominant painting style in German-speaking regions during the 13th century, derived from its characteristic zigzag or ‘broken-fold’ drapery forms. Its early development was largely due to the influence of Byzantine painting on German artists in the north-east (Lower Saxony, Saxon–Anhalt, and Thuringia). But in copying the Byzantine draperies, the northern artists exaggerated the patterns with decorative and expressive force, at the expense of the human forms beneath. Zigzagging drapery folds emphasize movement and lend the garment dynamic energy, as if it has a life of its own. Early examples include the Psalter (Stuttgart, Württemberg. Landesbib., MS. Bibl., fol. 24) made for Landgraf ...