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Article

Yi Am  

Korean calligrapher. He is considered one of the last great calligraphers of the Koryŏ period (918–1392). Born into a noble family, at the age of 17 he passed his first examinations and entered the Confucian academy in Kaesŏng, where he eventually rose to prominence in the central administration. Information on his life, and in particular on his career as an official, can be found in the ...

Article

Arihisa  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures.

Kose no Arihisa was the third son of Kose no Ariyuku and held important positions at court. His works include the portrait of two Mandarins and an image of Benzaiten, Goddess of Fortune. He worked at the temple of Kyoogokokuji in Kyoto between ...

Article

Ariie  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1321-1324.

Painter.

According to Brinkley, Ariie lived in Genko and was the son of Kose Mitsuyasu of Kyoto. His works include two handscrolls Gyogi-engi (Story of the Korean priest Gyogi) and Jizo-engi (Miracle of the Bodhisattva Jizo), as well as sixteen hanging scrolls of ...

Article

Ariyasu  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Active in Kyotoc.1326-1334.

Painter.

Kose School.

Ariyasu was the second son of Kose no Mitsuyasu.

Article

Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in Sichuan Provincec.1356.

Painter. Landscapes, flowers, animals.

Bencheng was a priest. Among his known works is Cabbage, Sparrows and Insects, preserved in Japan and signed and dated 1356.

Article

Bian Wu  

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century.

Born in Beijing.

Painter. Animals, flowers.

Bian Wu painted many birds, bamboos, and rocks.

Berlin: Birds on a Branch above a Rocky Promontory (painting in the shape of a fan, signed...

Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Active in the first half of the 14th century, during the Yuan dynasty.

Painter.

Bo Ziting was a Buddhist painter from Jiading (Jiangsu) who painted rocks and flowers.

Article

Masatomo Kawai

Japanese Zen monk, scholar, calligrapher, poet and painter. He began his training as a monk at Nanzenji in Kyoto, under Shun’oku Myōha, the nephew and disciple of Musō Sōseki, one of the leading Zen prelates of the Muromachi period (1333–1568). His other teachers included the Zen recluse Shakushitsu Genkō and Gidō Shūshin, under whom he studied literature. A trusted adviser of the fourth Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimochi, Gyokuen was appointed to the prestigious abbacies of Kenninji (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1308during the Yuan dynasty.

Painter.

Boyan Buhua was a Mongol noble who distinguished himself as a soldier. He painted dragons and landscapes.

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368).

Painter.

Tokyo (National Mus.): Arhat Seated on a Rock (ink and light colours on silk)

Article

Chinese, 14th century, female.

Activec.1379.

Born in Qiantang (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Cao Miaoqing specialised in painting flowers but was also a poetess and calligrapher. She lived in Hangzhou during the reign of Emperor Hongwu (1368-1399).

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Born 1271, in Huating (Jiangsu); died 1355.

Painter. Landscapes.

Yuan dynasty.

Cao Zhibai was a teacher at a government college during the reign of the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan (1264-1295). He then withdrew in order to devote himself to his Taoist studies and painting. He was a landscape artist and modelled his work on Guo Xi and Li Cheng....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born in Dongping (Shandong).

Painter. Landscapes.

Article

Kim Kumja Paik

Korean painter, connoisseur, scholar and statesman. In 1301 he won first place in the state examination. Thereafter his official career took him steadily to the post, in 1356, of Chief Minister of the Chancellery for State Affairs. Active in the Koryŏ period (918–1392), he served five sovereigns during his years in office and made many trips to Yanjing and to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan dynasty (...

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Activec.1320.

Born in Hangzhou (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Seoul (Nat. Mus. of Korea): Portrait of the Korean Scholar Li Qixian (dated 1319)

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, male.

Active in Hangzhou (Zhejiang)c.1260-1320.

Painter.

Although Chen Lin was the son of an official painter at the Hangzhou Academy, he was not one of the literati painters. He was a friend of the painter Zhao Mengfu, and painted birds and flowers, landscapes and figures....

Article

Chinese, 14th century, male.

Born in Haiyan (Zhejiang).

Painter.

Yuan dynasty.

Chen Lishan was a censor in Zhejiang province during the Zhizheng period (1341-1367). He was famous for his paintings of plum blossom.

Beijing: Light Plum Blossom (signed and dated 1351)