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Ai Xuan  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Nanjing.

Painter. Flowers, animals.

Ai Xuan specialised in flowers and birds and was a member of the academy of painting during the reign of Emperor Shenzong (1068-1085).

Beijing (NM): Aubergines and Cabbages (signed work)



W. A. P. Marr

Buddhist monastery in a small valley on the left bank of the River Indus, c. 64 km west of Leh in Ladakh, India. Tradition attributes the monastery’s origin to the Tibetan scholar and temple-builder Rinchen Sangpo (ad 958–1055), the ‘great translator’, and although its buildings mostly date from the 11th century, the site is replete with his memory, from the ancient tree he planted to his portraits and images in the temples. A treasure-house of art, Alchi has been preserved because of its isolation from trade routes and the decline of its community, the monks of the Dromtön sect of the Kadampa order....



Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered....



Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ...


Cui Bo  

James Robinson

Chinese painter. After establishing a considerable artistic reputation, Cui was appointed to the post of assistant teacher (yixue) at the court of Emperor Shenzong (reg 1067–85) at Bianliang (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). Dissatisfied with his post in the imperial Hanlin Painting Academy, Cui was given permission by the Emperor to resign but continued to paint ...


Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

Japanese Buddhist temple in the city of Uji, c. 18 km south of Kyoto. It occupies 1.65 ha of woodland along the western bank of the River Uji. Its ‘mountain name’ (sangō) and identifier prefix is Asahiyama.

Byōdōin is an independent temple affiliated with the Jōdo (Pure land) school of the Tendai sect of Esoteric ...


Bent L. Pedersen

Chinese painter . He was a painter of birds, flowers and insects, following the style of Teng Changyou ( fl ad 907–20). Although paintings attributed to him are not genuine, they provide an indication of his style. These works can be divided into two groups: one of relatively small paintings of flowers and another of larger pictures, with birds, insects, trees, rocks and flowers....


Chinese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1053, in Juye (Shandong); died 1110.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, animals.

Chao Buzhi was a scholar-official and poet. He also painted figures, animals and trees.


Chinese, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born 1059; died 1129.


Chao Shuozhi painted landscapes and wild geese. He was the brother of the painter Chao Buzhi.

Beijing (NM): Gathering of Herons and Geese in a River in Autumn (handscroll, with three inscriptions dated 1132...


Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Yancheng (Henan).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, scenes with figures.

Song dynasty.

Chen Yongzhi was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy during the Tiansheng period (1023-1032). A skilful artist, he painted Buddhist and Taoist as well as secular figures and was esteemed for his close attention to detail....


Cui Bai  

Chinese, 11th century, male.


Born in Haoliang (Anhui).

Painter. Flowers, animals. Murals.

Song dynasty.

Cui Bai was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy at the beginning of the Xining period (1068-1077) and was particularly favoured by the Song Emperor Shenzong. He painted several wall paintings in the palaces and temples of Kaifeng. He specialised in flowers, birds, and animals in motion....


Cui Que  

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Active during the second half of the 9th century.

Painter. Flowers, birds.

Cui Que was the brother of Cui Bai.


Joan Stanley-Baker

Chinese painter . Originally a vendor of medicinal herbs, he initially painted landscapes to attract potential customers. After attaining fame, he ‘frequented the manorial homes of princelings and officials’, for whom he painted murals, hanging scrolls and handscrolls. He was a familiar guest of the rich and powerful in both Chang’an and the capital, Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), in Henan Province. Famous clients included Huang Tingjian’s father, Huang Shu (...


Dorothy C. Wang

Site of Buddhist cave sanctuaries located 25 km south-east of the county town of Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China. In the wider definition Dunhuang also includes the Yulin caves at Anxi and the Xi qianfo dong (Western Cave of the Thousand Buddhas). From the 4th century to the 14th, Buddhist cave sanctuaries were continuously carved out in four or five tiers on the cliff face of an alluvial hill that faces east over the Dang River. At its height as a Buddhist complex in the 8th century ...



Japanese, 11th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 11th century.


Enkai was a Buddhist monk from Mount Shigi near Nara. He was one of the first ­sculptors to use the yosegi (joined-wood) style of carving, whereby monumental sculp­- tures were made from several different blocks of wood that had been carved separately and then put together. Until that time, these large wooden figures had been carved using the ichiboku technique, meaning out of a single block of wood. Enkai’s famous seated statue of ...


Chinese, 10th – 11th century, male.


Born towards the middle of the 10th century, in Huayuan, now Yaoxian (Shanxi).

Painter. Landscapes.

Fan Kuan’s biographical details are not well known. He was a landscape painter from northern China. It appears that he did not hold any official position and, after a peripatetic youth, he retreated into the mountain range of Mount Hua to devote himself to Daoism and the contemplation of nature. His work conveys the austere grandeur of the Shanxi mountains. Indeed, it represents the apogee of Chinese landscape painting and is among the most sublime in its entire history....


Term traditionally used to refer collectively to four Chinese masters of calligraphy active in the Northern Song period (ad 960–1279) whose influence was profound throughout the succeeding Jin and Southern Song periods. They were Su Shi, Huang Tingjian, Cai Xiang and Mi family...


Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Jiangzhou (Shaanxi).

Painter. Figures, landscapes.

Gao Keming was a friend of Yen Wengui. He was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy from about 1008 until 1053. Like other contemporary members of the academy, he was undoubtedly influenced by Guo Xi (...



Japanese, 10th – 11th century, male.

Born 942, in Toma (Yamato); died 1017, in Omi.

Priest, painter (?).

Genshin was a member of the Urabe family through his father and of the Kiyohara through his mother. At the age of nine he entered Mount Hiei, the headquarters of the Tendai sect, and followed the teachings of the priest Ryogen (912-985). In August 999 he was named ...


Roderick Whitfield

Chinese painter and collector. He was from a family of scholar-officials, possibly related to the Li clan who were rulers of the Southern Tang (ad 937–75). In 1070 he passed the national civil-service examinations to gain the title of jinshi, which in the Song period (...